Puerto Rico

Today, Puerto Rico is a topic that arouses great interest and debate in society. For a long time, Puerto Rico has been the object of study and analysis, generating different perspectives and opinions on the matter. In this article, we are going to delve into the topic of Puerto Rico, addressing its most relevant aspects and offering a broad and enriching vision of it. Puerto Rico is a topic that significantly impacts people's lives, and that is why it is essential to approach it from different angles to understand it in its entirety. Along these lines, we will explore the various facets of Puerto Rico, trying to offer an objective and complete vision that invites reflection and analysis on the part of our readers.

Puerto Rico
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
Free Associated State of Puerto Rico
Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico (Spanish)
Official logo of Puerto Rico
Seal of Puerto Rico
"La Isla del Encanto" (Spanish)
('The Island of Enchantment')
"Joannes est nomen ejus" (Latin)
('John is his name')
Anthem: "La Borinqueña" (Spanish)
("The Song of Borinquen")
Location of Puerto Rico
Location of Puerto Rico
Sovereign state United States
Before annexationCaptaincy General of Puerto Rico
Cession from Spain10 December 1898
Current constitution25 July 1952
and largest city
San Juan
18°27′N 66°6′W / 18.450°N 66.100°W / 18.450; -66.100
Common languages94.3% Spanish
5.5% English
0.2% other
Official languages
Ethnic groups
By race:
By origin:
Demonym(s)Puerto Rican (Spanish: puertorriqueño -a)
boricua (neutral)
borinqueño -a
borincano -a
puertorro -a
GovernmentDevolved presidential constitutional dependency
• President
Joe Biden (D)
• Governor
Pedro Pierluisi (PNP/D)
LegislatureLegislative Assembly
House of Representatives
United States Congress
Jenniffer González (PNP/R)
• Total
13,792 km2 (5,325 sq mi)
• Land
8,868 km2 (3,424 sq mi)
• Water
4,924 km2 (1,901 sq mi)
• Water (%)
• Length
178 km (111 mi)
• Width
65 km (40 mi)
Highest elevation
1,338 m (4,390 ft)
• 2023 estimate
3,205,691 (136th)
• 2020 census
• Density
361.4/km2 (936.0/sq mi) (41st)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $132.052 billion (85th)
• Per capita
Increase $41,682 (40th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $117.515 billion (62nd)
• Per capita
Increase $37,093 (28th)
Gini (2011)53.1
HDI (2015)0.845
very high · 40th
CurrencyUnited States dollar (US$) (USD)
Time zoneUTC-04:00 (AST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+1 (787), +1 (939)
USPS abbreviation
ISO 3166 code
Internet TLD.pr

Puerto Rico (Spanish for 'rich port'; abbreviated PR), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, is a Caribbean island, Commonwealth, and unincorporated territory of the United States. It is located in the northeast Caribbean Sea, approximately 1,000 miles (1,600 km) southeast of Miami, Florida, between the Dominican Republic and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona, Culebra, and Vieques. With roughly 3.2 million residents, it is divided into 78 municipalities, of which the most populous is the capital municipality of San Juan. Spanish and English are the official languages of the executive branch of government, though Spanish predominates.

Puerto Rico was settled by a succession of peoples beginning 2,000 to 4,000 years ago; these included the Ortoiroid, Saladoid, and Taíno. It was then colonized by Spain in 1493 following the arrival of Christopher Columbus. Puerto Rico was contested by other European powers, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. An influx of African slaves and settlers primarily from the Canary Islands and Andalusia vastly changed the cultural and demographic landscape of the island. Within the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain. By the late 19th century, a distinct Puerto Rican identity began to emerge, centered around a fusion of indigenous, African, and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, Puerto Rico was acquired by the United States.

Puerto Ricans have been U.S. citizens since 1917, and can move freely between the island and the mainland. However, when resident in the unincorporated territory of Puerto Rico, Puerto Ricans are disenfranchised at the national level, do not vote for the president or vice president, and generally do not pay federal income tax. In common with four other territories, Puerto Rico sends a nonvoting representative to the U.S. Congress, called a Resident Commissioner, and participates in presidential primaries; as it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in Congress, which governs it under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U.S. citizens residing on the island to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's current and future political status has consistently been a matter of significant debate.

Beginning in the mid-20th century, the U.S. government, together with the Puerto Rico Industrial Development Company, launched a series of economic projects to develop Puerto Rico into an industrial high-income economy. It is classified by the International Monetary Fund as a developed jurisdiction with an advanced, high-income economy; it ranks 40th on the Human Development Index. The major sectors of Puerto Rico's economy are manufacturing (primarily pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, and electronics) followed by services (namely tourism and hospitality).


Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port". Puerto Ricans often call the island Borinquen, a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which is popularly said to mean "Land of the Valiant Lord". The terms boricua, borinqueño, and borincano are commonly used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage, and derive from Borikén and Borinquen respectively. The island is also popularly known in Spanish as La Isla del Encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment".

Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico ("Rich Port City"). Eventually traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city.

The island's name was changed to Porto Rico by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The anglicized name was used by the U.S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico in 1931 by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila.

The official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico ("Free Associated State of Puerto Rico"), while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.


A 20th-century reconstruction of an 8th-century Taíno village, located at the spot in which their remains were discovered in 1975, in the aftermath of Hurricane Eloise
Map of the departments of Puerto Rico during Spanish provincial times (1886).

The history of Puerto Rico began with the settlement of the Ortoiroid people before 430 BC. At the time of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World in 1493, the dominant indigenous culture was that of the Taínos. The Taíno people's numbers went dangerously low during the later half of the 16th century because of new infectious diseases carried by Europeans, exploitation by Spanish settlers, and warfare.

Located in the northeastern Caribbean, Puerto Rico formed a key part of the Spanish Empire from the early years of the exploration, conquest and colonization of the New World. The island was a major military post during many wars between Spain and other European powers for control of the region in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.

In 1593, Portuguese soldiers, sent from Lisbon by order of Phillip II, composed the first garrison of the San Felipe del Morro fortress in Puerto Rico. Some brought their wives, while others married Puerto Rican women, and today there are many Puerto Rican families with Portuguese last names. The smallest of the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico was a stepping-stone in the passage from Europe to Cuba, Mexico, Central America, and the northern territories of South America. Throughout most of the 19th century until the conclusion of the Spanish–American War, Puerto Rico and Cuba were the last two Spanish colonies in the New World; they served as Spain's final outposts in a strategy to regain control of the American continents. Realizing that it was in danger of losing its two remaining Caribbean territories, the Spanish Crown revived the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815. The decree was printed in Spanish, English and French in order to attract Europeans, with the hope that the independence movements would lose their popularity and strength with the arrival of new settlers. Free land was offered to those who wanted to populate the islands on the condition that they swear their loyalty to the Spanish Crown and allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church.

In 1898, during the Spanish–American War, Puerto Rico was invaded and subsequently became a possession of the United States. The first years of the 20th century were marked by the struggle to obtain greater democratic rights from the United States.

The Foraker Act of 1900 established a civil government, ending rule by American generals and the Department of War. A United States Supreme Court ruling Ortega v. Lara, 202 U.S. 339, 342 (1906), involving the Foraker Act and referring to the island as "the acquired country", soon affirmed that the Constitution of the United States applied within its territory and that any domestic Puerto Rican laws which did not conflict with the United States Constitution remained in force.

The Jones Act of 1917, which made Puerto Ricans U.S. citizens, paved the way for the drafting of Puerto Rico's Constitution and its approval by Congress and Puerto Rican voters in 1952. However, the political status of Puerto Rico, a Commonwealth controlled by the United States, remains an anomaly.

21st century

In 2009, the United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization approved a draft resolution calling on the government of the United States to expedite a process that would allow the Puerto Rican people to exercise fully their inalienable right to self-determination and independence. In November 2012, a two-question referendum took place, simultaneous with the general elections. The first question, voted on in August, asked voters whether they wanted to maintain the current status under the territorial clause of the U.S. Constitution. 54% voted against the status quo, effectively approving the second question to be voted on in November. The second question posed three alternate status options: statehood, independence, or free association. 61.16% voted for statehood, 33.34% for a sovereign free-associated state, and 5.49% for independence.[failed verification]

In 2016, President Barack Obama signed into law H.R. 5278: PROMESA, establishing a Control Board over the Puerto Rican government. This board will have a significant degree of federal control involved in its establishment and operations. In particular, the authority to establish the control board derives from the federal government's constitutional power to "make all needful rules and regulations" regarding U.S. territories; The president would appoint all seven voting members of the board; and the board would have broad sovereign powers to effectively overrule decisions by Puerto Rico's legislature, governor, and other public authorities.

Puerto Rico held its statehood referendum during the 3 November 2020 general elections; the ballot asked one question: "Should Puerto Rico be admitted immediately into the Union as a State?" The results showed that 52 percent of Puerto Rico voters answered yes.


Beach and coastline at Patillas, in southeast Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico consists of the main island of Puerto Rico and various smaller islands, including Vieques, Culebra, Mona, Desecheo, and Caja de Muertos. Of these five, only Culebra and Vieques are inhabited year-round. Mona, which has played a key role in maritime history, is uninhabited most of the year except for employees of the Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources. There are many other even smaller islets, like Monito, located near Mona, and Isla de Cabras and La Isleta de San Juan, both located on the San Juan Bay. The latter is the only inhabited islet with communities like Old San Juan and Puerta de Tierra, which are connected to the main island by bridges.

NOAA Bathymetry Image of Puerto Rico (2020)

The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico has an area of 5,320 square miles (13,800 km2), of which 3,420 sq mi (8,900 km2) is land and 1,900 sq mi (4,900 km2) is water. Puerto Rico is larger than Delaware and Rhode Island but smaller than Connecticut. The maximum length of the main island from east to west is 110 mi (180 km), and the maximum width from north to south is 40 mi (64 km). Puerto Rico is the smallest of the Greater Antilles. It is 80% of the size of Jamaica, just over 18% of the size of Hispaniola and 8% of the size of Cuba, the largest of the Greater Antilles.

The topography of the island is mostly mountainous with large flat areas in the northern and southern coasts. The main mountain range that crosses the island from east to west is called the Cordillera Central (also known as the Central Mountain Range in English). The highest elevation in Puerto Rico, Cerro de Punta 4,390 feet (1,340 m), is located in this range. Another important peak is El Yunque, one of the highest in the Sierra de Luquillo at the El Yunque National Forest, with an elevation of 3,494 ft (1,065 m).

Map by USGIS

Puerto Rico has 17 lakes, all man-made, and more than 50 rivers, most of which originate in the Cordillera Central. Rivers in the northern region of the island are typically longer and of higher water flow rates than those of the south, since the south receives less rain than the central and northern regions.

Puerto Rico is composed of Cretaceous to Eocene volcanic and plutonic rocks, overlain by younger Oligocene and more recent carbonates and other sedimentary rocks. Most of the caverns and karst topography on the island occurs in the northern region. The oldest rocks are approximately 190 million years old (Jurassic) and are located at Sierra Bermeja in the southwest part of the island. They may represent part of the oceanic crust and are believed to come from the Pacific Ocean realm.

Puerto Rico lies at the boundary between the Caribbean and North American Plates and is being deformed by the tectonic stresses caused by their interaction. These stresses may cause earthquakes and tsunamis. These seismic events, along with landslides, represent some of the most dangerous geologic hazards in the island and in the northeastern Caribbean. The 1918 San Fermín earthquake occurred on 11 October, 1918 and had an estimated magnitude of 7.5 on the Richter scale. It originated off the coast of Aguadilla, several kilometers off the northern coast, and was accompanied by a tsunami. It caused extensive property damage and widespread losses, damaging infrastructure, especially bridges. It resulted in an estimated 116 deaths and $4 million in property damage. The failure of the government to move rapidly to provide for the general welfare contributed to political activism by opponents and eventually to the rise of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party. On 7 January 2020, the country experienced its largest earthquake since 1918, estimated at magnitude 6.4. Economic losses were estimated to be more than $3.1 billion.

The Puerto Rico Trench, the largest and deepest trench in the Atlantic, is located about 71 mi (114 km) north of Puerto Rico at the boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates. It is 170 mi (270 km) long. At its deepest point, named the Milwaukee Deep, it is almost 27,600 ft (8,400 m) deep. The Mona Canyon, located in the Mona Passage between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, is another prominent oceanic landform with steep walls measuring between 1.25 and 2.17 miles (2.01 and 3.49 km) in height from bottom to top.


Köppen climate types in Puerto Rico indicating that the island primarily has rainforest and monsoon climate types

The climate of Puerto Rico in the Köppen climate classification is mostly tropical rainforest. Temperatures are warm to hot year round, averaging near 85 °F (29 °C) in lower elevations and 70 °F (21 °C) in the mountains. Easterly trade winds pass across the island year round. Puerto Rico has a rainy season, which stretches from April into November, and a dry season stretching from December to March. The mountains of the Cordillera Central create a rain shadow and are the main cause of the variations in the temperature and rainfall that occur over very short distances. The mountains can also cause wide variation in local wind speed and direction due to their sheltering and channeling effects, adding to the climatic variation. Daily temperature changes seasonally are quite small in the lowlands and coastal areas.

Between the dry and wet seasons, there is a temperature change of around 6 °F (3.3 °C). This change is due mainly to the warm waters of the tropical Atlantic Ocean, which significantly modify cooler air moving in from the north and northwest. Coastal water temperatures during the year are about 75 °F (24 °C) in February and 85 °F (29 °C) in August. The highest temperature ever recorded was 110 °F (43 °C) at Arecibo, while the lowest temperature ever recorded was 40 °F (4 °C) in the mountains at Adjuntas, Aibonito, and Corozal. The average yearly precipitation is 66 in (1,676 mm).


Puerto Rico experiences the Atlantic hurricane season, similar to the rest of the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean. On average, a quarter of its annual rainfall is contributed from tropical cyclones, which are more prevalent during periods of La Niña than El Niño. A cyclone of tropical storm strength passes near Puerto Rico, on average, every five years. A hurricane passes in the vicinity of the island, on average, every seven years. Since 1851, the Lake Okeechobee Hurricane (also known as the San Felipe Segundo hurricane in Puerto Rico) of September 1928 is the only hurricane to make landfall as a Category 5 hurricane.

In the busy 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, Puerto Rico avoided a direct hit by the Category 5 Hurricane Irma on 6 September 2017, as it passed about 60 mi (97 km) north of Puerto Rico, but high winds caused a loss of electrical power to some one million residents. Almost 50% of hospitals were operating with power provided by generators. The Category 4 Hurricane Jose, as expected, veered away from Puerto Rico. A short time later, the devastating Hurricane Maria made landfall on Puerto Rico on Wednesday, 20 September, near the Yabucoa municipality at 10:15 UTC (6:15 am local time) as a high-end Category 4 hurricane with sustained winds of 155 mph (249 km/h), powerful rains and widespread flooding causing tremendous destruction, including the electrical grid, which would remain out for 4–6 months in many portions of the island.

In 2019, Hurricane Dorian became the third hurricane in three years to hit Puerto Rico. The recovering infrastructure from the 2017 hurricanes, as well as new governor Wanda Vázquez Garced, were put to the test against a potential humanitarian crisis. Tropical Storm Karen also caused impacts to Puerto Rico during 2019.

Climate change

Climate change has had large impacts on the ecosystems and landscapes of the US territory Puerto Rico. According to a 2019 report by Germanwatch, Puerto Rico is the most affected by climate change. The territory's energy consumption is mainly derived from imported fossil fuels.

The Puerto Rico Climate Change Council (PRCCC) noted severe changes in seven categories: air temperature, precipitation, extreme weather events, tropical storms and hurricanes, ocean acidification, sea surface temperatures, and sea level rise.

Climate change also affects Puerto Rico's population, the economy, human health, and the number of people forced to migrate.

Surveys have shown[vague] climate change is a matter of concern for most Puerto Ricans. The territory has enacted laws and policies concerning climate change mitigation and adaptation, including the use of renewable energy. Local initiatives are working toward mitigation and adaptation goals, and international aid programs support reconstruction after extreme weather events and encourage disaster planning.


Puerto Rico is home to three terrestrial ecoregions: Puerto Rican moist forests, Puerto Rican dry forests, and Greater Antilles mangroves. Puerto Rico has two biosphere reserves recognized by the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme: Luquillo Biosphere Reserve represented by El Yunque National Forest and the Guánica Biosphere Reserve.

In this image there is a brown coquí. The species resembles a small frog.
Common coquí

Species endemic to the archipelago number 239 plants, 16 birds and 39 amphibians/reptiles, recognized as of 1998. Most of these (234, 12 and 33 respectively) are found on the main island. The most recognizable endemic species and a symbol of Puerto Rican pride is the coquí, a small frog easily identified by the sound of its call, from which it gets its name. Most coquí species (13 of 17) live in the El Yunque National Forest, the only tropical rainforest in the U.S. Forest Service system, located in the northeast of the island. It was previously known as the Caribbean National Forest. El Yunque is home to more than 240 plants, 26 of which are endemic to the island. It is also home to 50 bird species, including the critically endangered Puerto Rican amazon.

In addition to El Yunque National Forest, the Puerto Rican moist forest ecoregion is represented by protected areas such as the Maricao and Toro Negro state forests. These areas are home to endangered endemic species such as the Puerto Rican boa (Chilabothrus inornatus), the Puerto Rican sharp-shinned hawk (Accipiter striatus venator), the Puerto Rican broad-winged hawk (Buteo platypterus brunnescens) and the elfin woods warbler (Setophaga angelae). The Northern Karst country of Puerto Rico is also home to one of the remaining rainforest tracts in the island, with the Río Abajo State Forest being the first focus for the reintroduction of the highly endangered Puerto Rican parrot outside of the Sierra de Luquillo.

In the southwest, the Guánica State Forest and Biosphere Reserve contain over 600 uncommon species of plants and animals, including 48 endangered species and 16 that are endemic to Puerto Rico, and is considered a prime example of the Puerto Rican dry forest ecoregion and the best-preserved dry forest in the Caribbean. Other protected dry forests in Puerto Rico can be formed within the Caribbean Islands National Wildlife Refuge complex at the Cabo Rojo, Desecheo, Culebra and Vieques National Wildlife Refuges, and in the Caja de Muertos and Mona and Monito Islands Nature Reserves. Examples of endemic species found in this ecoregion are the higo chumbo (Harrisia portoricensis), the Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne lemur), and the Mona ground iguana (Cyclura stejnegeri), the largest land animal native to Puerto Rico.

Puerto Rico has three of the seven year-long bioluminescent bays in the Caribbean: Laguna Grande in Fajardo, La Parguera in Lajas and Puerto Mosquito in Vieques. These are unique bodies of water surrounded by mangroves that inhabited by the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense. However, tourism, pollution, and hurricanes have highly threatened these unique ecosystems.

Government and politics

Puerto Rico has a republican form of government based on the American model, with separation of powers subject to the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United States. All governmental powers are delegated by the United States Congress, with the head of state being president of the United States. As an unincorporated territory, Puerto Rico lacks full protection under the United States Constitution.

The government of Puerto Rico is composed of three branches. The executive is headed by the governor, currently Pedro Pierluisi Urrutia. The legislative branch consists of the bicameral Legislative Assembly, made up of a Senate as its upper chamber and a House of Representatives as its lower chamber; the Senate is headed by a president, currently José Luis Dalmau, while the House is headed by the speaker of the House, currently Tatito Hernández. The governor and legislators are elected by popular vote every four years, with the last election held in November 2020. The judicial branch is headed by the chief justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico, currently Maite Oronoz Rodríguez. Members of the judiciary are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate.

Puerto Rico is represented in the U.S. Congress by a nonvoting delegate to the House of Representatives, the resident commissioner, currently Jenniffer González. Current congressional rules have removed the commissioner's power to vote in the Committee of the Whole, but the commissioner can vote in committee.

Puerto Rican elections are governed by the Federal Election Commission and the State Elections Commission of Puerto Rico. Residents of Puerto Rico, including other U.S. citizens, cannot vote in U.S. presidential elections, but can vote in primaries. Puerto Ricans who become residents of a U.S. state or Washington, D.C. can vote in presidential elections.

Puerto Rico has eight senatorial districts, 40 representative districts, and 78 municipalities; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the U.S. government. Municipalities are subdivided into wards or barrios, and those into sectors. Each municipality has a mayor and a municipal legislature elected for a four-year term. The municipality of San Juan is the oldest, founded in 1521; the next earliest settlements are San Germán in 1570, Coamo in 1579, Arecibo in 1614, Aguada in 1692 and Ponce in 1692. Increased settlement in the 18th century saw 30 more communities established, following 34 in the 19th century. Six were founded in the 20th century, the most recent being Florida in 1971.

Political parties and elections

The difference between the incumbent party, the PPD, and its opponent, the PNP, was a mere 0.6% in the last election. This difference is common as the political landscape experiences political cycles between both parties, with the PPD ruling all branches of government for 36 of the past 64 years. The PNP, on the other hand, has ruled both the executive and legislative branch concurrently for 16 years. The other 12 years experienced a divided government.

Since 1952, Puerto Rico has had three main political parties: the Popular Democratic Party (PPD in Spanish), the New Progressive Party (PNP in Spanish) and the Puerto Rican Independence Party (PIP). The three parties stand for different political status. The PPD, for example, seeks to maintain the island's status with the U.S. as a commonwealth, while the PNP, on the other hand, seeks to make Puerto Rico a state of the United States. The PIP, in contrast, seeks a complete separation from the United States by seeking to make Puerto Rico a sovereign nation. In terms of party strength, the PPD and PNP usually hold about 47% of the vote each while the PIP holds about 5%.

After 2007, other parties emerged on the island. The first, the Puerto Ricans for Puerto Rico Party (PPR in Spanish) was registered that same year. The party claims that it seeks to address the islands' problems from a status-neutral platform. But it ceased to remain as a registered party when it failed to obtain the required number of votes in the 2008 general election. Four years later, the 2012 election saw the emergence of the Movimiento Unión Soberanista (MUS; English: Sovereign Union Movement) and the Partido del Pueblo Trabajador (PPT; English: Working People's Party) but none obtained more than 1% of the vote.

Other non-registered parties include the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, the Socialist Workers Movement, and the Hostosian National Independence Movement.

Political status

The nature of Puerto Rico's political relationship with the U.S. is the subject of ongoing debate in Puerto Rico, the United States Congress, and the United Nations. Specifically, the basic question is whether Puerto Rico should remain an unincorporated territory of the U.S., become a U.S. state, or become an independent country.

The Capitol of Puerto Rico, home of the Legislative Assembly in Puerto Rico

Constitutionally, Puerto Rico is subject to the plenary powers of the United States Congress under the territorial clause of Article IV of the U.S. Constitution. Laws enacted at the federal level in the United States apply to Puerto Rico as well, regardless of its political status. Their residents do not have voting representation in the U.S. Congress. Puerto Rico lacks "the full sovereignty of an independent nation", for example, the power to manage its "external relations with other nations", which is held by the U.S. federal government. The Supreme Court of the United States has indicated that once the U.S. Constitution has been extended to an area (by Congress or the courts), its coverage is irrevocable. To hold that the political branches may switch the Constitution on or off at will would lead to a regime in which they, not this Court, say "what the law is".

Puerto Ricans "were collectively made U.S. citizens" in 1917 as a result of the Jones-Shafroth Act. U.S. citizens residing in Puerto Rico cannot vote in U.S. presidential elections, though both major parties, Republican and Democratic, hold primary elections in Puerto Rico to choose delegates to vote on the parties' presidential candidates. Since Puerto Rico is an unincorporated territory (see above) and not a U.S. state, the United States Constitution does not fully enfranchise U.S. citizens residing in Puerto Rico.

Only fundamental rights under the American federal constitution and adjudications are applied to Puerto Ricans. Various other U.S. Supreme Court decisions have held which rights apply in Puerto Rico and which ones do not. Puerto Ricans have a long history of service in the U.S. Armed Forces and, since 1917, they have been included in the U.S. compulsory draft whensoever it has been in effect.

Though the Commonwealth government has its own tax laws, residents of Puerto Rico, contrary to a popular misconception, do pay U.S. federal taxes: customs taxes (which are subsequently returned to the Puerto Rico Treasury), import/export taxes, federal commodity taxes, social security taxes, etc. Residents pay federal payroll taxes, such as Social Security and Medicare, as well as Commonwealth of Puerto Rico income taxes. All federal employees, those who do business with the federal government, Puerto Rico-based corporations that intend to send funds to the U.S., and some others, such as Puerto Rican residents that are members of the U.S. military, and Puerto Rico residents who earned income from sources outside Puerto Rico also pay federal income taxes. In addition, because the cutoff point for income taxation is lower than that of the U.S. IRS code, and because the per-capita income in Puerto Rico is much lower than the average per-capita income on the mainland, more Puerto Rico residents pay income taxes to the local taxation authority than if the IRS code were applied to the island. This occurs because "the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico government has a wider set of responsibilities than do U.S. State and local governments."

In 2009, Puerto Rico paid $3.742 billion into the U.S. Treasury. Residents of Puerto Rico pay into Social Security, and are thus eligible for Social Security benefits upon retirement. They are excluded from the Supplemental Security Income (SSI), and the island actually receives a smaller fraction of the Medicaid funding it would receive if it were a U.S. state. Also, Medicare providers receive less-than-full state-like reimbursements for services rendered to beneficiaries in Puerto Rico, even though the latter paid fully into the system.

Puerto Rico's authority to enact a criminal code derives from Congress and not from local sovereignty as with the states. Thus, individuals committing a crime can only be tried in federal or territorial court, otherwise it would constitute double jeopardy and is constitutionally impermissible.

In 1992, President George H. W. Bush issued a memorandum to heads of executive departments and agencies establishing the current administrative relationship between the federal government and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. This memorandum directs all federal departments, agencies, and officials to treat Puerto Rico administratively as if it were a state, insofar as doing so would not disrupt federal programs or operations.

Many federal executive branch agencies have significant presence in Puerto Rico, just as in any state, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Transportation Security Administration, Social Security Administration, and others. While Puerto Rico has its own Commonwealth judicial system similar to that of a U.S. state, there is also a U.S. federal district court in Puerto Rico, and Puerto Ricans have served as judges in that Court and in other federal courts on the U.S. mainland regardless of their residency status at the time of their appointment. Sonia Sotomayor, a New Yorker of Puerto Rican descent, serves as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Puerto Ricans have also been frequently appointed to high-level federal positions, including serving as United States ambassadors to other nations.

Administrative divisions

A map of Puerto Rico showing its 78 municipalities; the islands of Vieques and Culebra have their own municipal governments.

Unlike the vast majority of U.S. states, Puerto Rico has no first-order administrative divisions akin to counties, but has 78 municipalities or municipios as the secondary unit of administration; for U.S. Census purposes, the municipalities are considered county equivalents. Municipalities are subdivided into barrios, and those into sectors. Each municipality has a mayor and a municipal legislature elected for four-year terms, per the Autonomous Municipalities Act of 1991.

Foreign and intergovernmental relations

Puerto Rico is subject to the Commerce and Territorial Clause of the U.S. Constitution and is thus restricted on how it can engage with other nations, sharing the opportunities and limitations that state governments have albeit not being one. As is the case with state governments, it has established several trade agreements with other nations, particularly with Latin American countries such as Colombia and Panamá.

It has also established trade promotion offices in many foreign countries, all Spanish-speaking, and within the United States itself, which now include Spain, the Dominican Republic, Panama, Colombia, Washington, D.C., New York City and Florida, and has included in the past offices in Chile, Costa Rica, and Mexico. Such agreements require permission from the U.S. Department of State; most are simply allowed by existing laws or trade treaties between the United States and other nations which supersede trade agreements pursued by Puerto Rico and different U.S. states. Puerto Rico hosts consulates from 41 countries, mainly from the Americas and Europe, with most located in San Juan.

At the local level, Puerto Rico established by law that the international relations which states and territories are allowed to engage must be handled by the Department of State of Puerto Rico, an executive department, headed by the secretary of state of Puerto Rico, who also serves as the unincorporated territory's lieutenant governor. It is also charged to liaise with general consuls and honorary consuls based in Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rico Federal Affairs Administration, along with the Office of the Resident Commissioner, manages all its intergovernmental affairs before entities of or in the United States (including the federal government of the United States, local and state governments of the United States, and public or private entities in the United States).[citation needed]

Both entities frequently assist the Department of State of Puerto Rico in engaging with Washington, D.C.-based ambassadors and federal agencies that handle Puerto Rico's foreign affairs, such as the U.S. Department of State, the Agency for International Development, and others. The current secretary of state is Larry Seilhamer Rodríguez from the New Progressive Party, while the current director of the Puerto Rico Federal Affairs Administration is Jennifer M. Stopiran also from the NPP and a member of the Republican Party of the United States.[citation needed]

The resident commissioner of Puerto Rico, the delegate elected by Puerto Ricans to represent them before the federal government, including the U.S. Congress, sits in the United States House of Representatives, serves and votes on congressional committees, and functions in every respect as a legislator except being denied a vote on the final disposition of legislation on the House floor. The current resident commissioner is Jenniffer González-Colón, a Republican, elected in 2016. She received more votes than any other official elected in Puerto Rico that year.

Many Puerto Ricans have served as United States ambassadors to different nations and international organizations, such as the Organization of American States, mostly but not exclusively in Latin America. For example, Maricarmen Aponte, a Puerto Rican and now an acting assistant secretary of state, previously served as U.S. ambassador to El Salvador.


U.S. military installations and other federal lands in Puerto Rico (including the United States Virgin Islands) throughout the 20th century

As it is an unincorporated territory of the United States, the defense of Puerto Rico is provided by the United States as part of the Treaty of Paris with the president of the United States as its commander-in-chief. Puerto Rico has its own National Guard, and its own state defense force, the Puerto Rico State Guard, which by local law is under the authority of the Puerto Rico National Guard.

The commander-in-chief of both local forces is the governor of Puerto Rico who delegates his authority to the Puerto Rico adjutant general, currently Major General José J. Reyes. The Adjutant General, in turn, delegates the authority over the State Guard to another officer but retains the authority over the Puerto Rico National Guard as a whole. U.S. military installations in Puerto Rico were part of the U.S. Atlantic Command (LANTCOM after 1993 USACOM), which had authority over all U.S. military operations that took place throughout the Atlantic. Puerto Rico had been seen as crucial in supporting LANTCOM's mission until 1999, when U.S. Atlantic Command was renamed and given a new mission as United States Joint Forces Command. Puerto Rico is currently under the responsibility of United States Northern Command.

Both the Naval Forces Caribbean (NFC) and the Fleet Air Caribbean (FAIR) were formerly based at the Roosevelt Roads Naval Station. The NFC had authority over all U.S. Naval activity in the waters of the Caribbean while FAIR had authority over all U.S. military flights and air operations over the Caribbean. With the closing of the Roosevelt Roads and Vieques Island training facilities, the U.S. Navy has basically exited from Puerto Rico, except for the ships that steam by, and the only significant military presence in the island is the U.S. Army at Ft Buchanan, the Puerto Rican Army and Air National Guards, and the U.S. Coast Guard. Protests over the noise of bombing practice forced the closure of the naval base. This resulted in a loss of 6,000 jobs and an annual decrease in local income of $300 million.

A branch of the U.S. Army National Guard is stationed in Puerto Rico – known as the Puerto Rico Army National Guard – which performs missions equivalent to those of the Army National Guards of the different states of the United States, including ground defense, disaster relief, and control of civil unrest. The local National Guard also incorporates a branch of the U.S. Air National Guard – known as the Puerto Rico Air National Guard – which performs missions equivalent to those of the Air National Guards of each one of the U.S. states.

Ohio-class ballistic missile submarine USS Maryland, Roosevelt Roads Naval Station, 1997

At different times in the 20th century, the U.S. had about 25 military or naval installations in Puerto Rico, some very small ones, as well as large installations. The largest of these installations were the former Roosevelt Roads Naval Station in Ceiba, the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Training Facility (AFWTF) on Vieques, the National Guard training facility at Camp Santiago in Salinas, Fort Allen in Juana Diaz, the Army's Fort Buchanan in San Juan, the former U.S. Air Force's Ramey Air Force Base in Aguadilla, and the Puerto Rico Air National Guard's Muñiz Air National Guard Base in San Juan.

The former U.S. Navy facilities at Roosevelt Roads, Vieques, and Sabana Seca have been deactivated and partially turned over to the local government. Other than U.S. Coast Guard and Puerto Rico National Guard facilities, there are only two remaining military installations in Puerto Rico: the U.S. Army's small Ft. Buchanan (supporting local veterans and reserve units) and the PRANG (Puerto Rico Air National Guard) Muñiz Air Base (the C-130 Fleet). In recent years, the U.S. Congress has considered their deactivations, but these have been opposed by diverse public and private entities in Puerto Rico – such as retired military who rely on Ft. Buchanan for the services available there.

Puerto Ricans have participated in many United States military conflicts, including the American Revolution, when volunteers from Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Mexico fought the British in 1779 under the command of General Bernardo de Gálvez (1746–1786). They continue to be disproportionately represented in present-day conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The most notable example is the 65th Infantry Regiment of the United States Army, nicknamed The Borinqueneers, from the original Taíno name of the island (Borinquen). The all-Puerto Rican regiment participated in World War I, World War II, the Korean War, and the War on Terror; in 2014, it was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal for its heroism during the Korean War.

A significant number of Puerto Ricans serve in the U.S. Armed Forces, largely as National Guard members and civilian employees. The size of the overall military-related community is estimated to be 100,000, including retired personnel. Fort Buchanan has about 4,000 military and civilian personnel. In addition, approximately 17,000 people are members of the Puerto Rico Army and Air National Guards, or the U.S. Reserve forces.


The insular legal system is a blend of civil law and the common law systems.

Puerto Rico is the only current U.S. jurisdiction whose legal system operates primarily in a language other than American English: namely, Spanish. Because the U.S. federal government operates primarily in English, all Puerto Rican attorneys must be bilingual in order to litigate in English in U.S. federal courts, and litigate federal preemption issues in Puerto Rican courts.[original research?]

Title 48 of the United States Code outlines the role of the United States Code to United States territories and insular areas such as Puerto Rico. After the U.S. government assumed control of Puerto Rico in 1901, it initiated legal reforms resulting in the adoption of codes of criminal law, criminal procedure, and civil procedure modeled after those then in effect in California. Although Puerto Rico has since followed the federal example of transferring criminal and civil procedure from statutory law to rules promulgated by the judiciary, several portions of its criminal law still reflect the influence of the California Penal Code.

The judicial branch is headed by the chief justice of the Puerto Rico Supreme Court, which is the only appellate court required by the Constitution. All other courts are created by the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico. There is also a Federal District Court for Puerto Rico, and someone accused of a criminal act at the federal level may not be accused for the same act in a Commonwealth court, and vice versa, since Puerto Rico as an unincorporated territory lacks sovereignty separate from Congress as a state does. Such a parallel accusation would constitute double jeopardy.


The homicide rate of 19.2 per 100,000 inhabitants was significantly higher than any U.S. state in 2014. Most homicide victims are gang members and drug traffickers with about 80% of homicides in Puerto Rico being drug related.

In 1992, the FBI made armed carjacking a federal crime and rates decreased per statistics, but as of 2019, the problem continued in municipalities like Guaynabo and others. From 1 January 2019 to 14 March 2019, thirty carjackings had occurred on the island.


Real GDP per capita development of Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico is classified as a high income economy by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. It is considered the most competitive economy in Latin America by the World Economic Forum and ranks highly on the Human Development Index. According to World Bank, gross national income per capita in Puerto Rico in 2020 was $21,740. Puerto Rico's economy is mainly driven by manufacturing (primarily pharmaceuticals, textiles, petrochemicals and electronics) followed by services (primarily finance, insurance, real estate and tourism); agriculture represents less than 1% of GNP. In recent years, it has also become a popular destination for MICE (meetings, incentives, conferencing, exhibitions), with a modern convention center district overlooking the Port of San Juan.

Responsibility for San Juan port inspections lies with PPQ. So high is the volume of cargo traffic that between 1984–2000 the San Juan PPQ station recorded 7.74% of all interceptions, #4 in the country, #2 for insects and #3 for pathogens. Most species are originally from South America or elsewhere in the Caribbean due to PR's position as an intermediary on the way to the mainland. This is one of the worst locations for cut flowers and other plant parts – both in terms of number of problems and diversity of species – for insects in plant parts in baggage, and for pathogens in plant parts in baggage and cargo. Pathogen interceptions were dramatically (17%) higher 1999–2000 than in 1985–1986.

Puerto Rico's geography and political status are both determining factors for its economic prosperity, primarily due to its relatively small size; lack of natural resources and subsequent dependence on imports; and vulnerability to U.S. foreign policy and trading restrictions, particularly concerning its shipping industry.

Puerto Rico experienced a recession from 2006 to 2011, interrupted by four quarters of economic growth, and entered into recession again in 2013, following growing fiscal imbalance and the expiration of the IRS Section 936 corporate incentives that the U.S. Internal Revenue Code had applied to Puerto Rico. This IRS section was critical to the economy, as it established tax exemptions for U.S. corporations that settled in Puerto Rico and allowed their insular subsidiaries to send their earnings to the parent corporation at any time, without paying federal tax on corporate income. Puerto Rico has been able to maintain a relatively low inflation in the past decade while maintaining a purchasing power parity per capita higher than 80% of the rest of the world.

Puerto Rico's GDP by economic sector

Academically, most of Puerto Rico's economic woes stem from federal regulations that expired, have been repealed, or no longer apply to Puerto Rico; its inability to become self-sufficient and self-sustainable throughout history; its highly politicized public policy which tends to change whenever a political party gains power; as well as its highly inefficient local government which has accrued a public debt equal to 68% of its gross domestic product throughout time. Puerto Rico currently has a public debt of $72.204 billion (equivalent to 103% of GNP), and a government deficit of $2.5 billion.

By American standards, Puerto Rico is underdeveloped: It is poorer than Mississippi, the poorest state of the U.S., with 41% of its population below the poverty line. However, it has the highest GDP per capita in Latin America. Puerto Rico's main trading partners are the United States, Ireland, and Japan, with most products coming from East Asia, mainly China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. Puerto Rico's dependency on oil for transportation and electricity generation, as well as its dependency on food imports and raw materials, makes Puerto Rico volatile and highly reactive to changes in the world economy and climate.


Beach in Coto, Isabela

Tourism in Puerto Rico is also an important part of the economy. In 2017, Hurricane Maria caused severe damage to the island and its infrastructure, disrupting tourism for many months. The damage was estimated at $100 billion. An April 2019 report indicated that by that time, only a few hotels were still closed, that life for tourists in and around the capital had, for the most part, returned to normal. By October 2019, nearly all of the popular amenities for tourists, in the major destinations such as San Juan, Ponce and Arecibo, were in operation on the island and tourism was rebounding. This was important for the economy, since tourism provides up to 10% of Puerto Rico's GDP, according to Discover Puerto Rico.

A tourism campaign was launched by Discover Puerto Rico in 2018 intended to highlight the island's culture and history, branding it distinct, and different from other Caribbean destinations. In 2019, Discover Puerto Rico planned to continue that campaign.

Fiscal debt

In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government which was saddled with outstanding bond debt that had climbed to $70 billion. The debt had been increasing during a decade-long recession.

The Commonwealth had been defaulting on many debts, including bonds, since 2015. With debt payments due, the governor was facing the risk of a government shutdown and failure to fund the managed health care system. "Without action before April, Puerto Rico's ability to execute contracts for Fiscal Year 2018 with its managed care organizations will be threatened, thereby putting at risk beginning July 1, 2017 the health care of up to 900,000 poor U.S. citizens living in Puerto Rico", according to a letter sent to Congress by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary of Health and Human Services. They also said that "Congress must enact measures recommended by both Republicans and Democrats that fix Puerto Rico's inequitable health care financing structure and promote sustained economic growth."

Initially, the oversight board created under PROMESA called for Puerto Rico's governor Ricardo Rosselló to deliver a fiscal turnaround plan by 28 January. Just before that deadline, the control board gave the Commonwealth government until 28 February to present a fiscal plan (including negotiations with creditors for restructuring debt) to solve the problems. A moratorium on lawsuits by debtors was extended to 31 May. It is essential for Puerto Rico to reach restructuring deals to avoid a bankruptcy-like process under PROMESA. An internal survey conducted by the Puerto Rican Economists Association revealed that the majority of Puerto Rican economists reject the policy recommendations of the Board and the Rosselló government, with more than 80% of economists arguing in favor of auditing the debt.

In early August 2017, the island's financial oversight board (created by PROMESA) planned to institute two days off without pay per month for government employees, down from the original plan of four days per month; the latter had been expected to achieve $218 million in savings. Governor Rossello rejected this plan as unjustified and unnecessary. Pension reforms were also discussed including a proposal for a 10% reduction in benefits to begin addressing the $50 billion in unfunded pension liabilities.

Public finances

Puerto Rico has an operating budget of about U.S.$9.8 billion with expenses at about $10.4 billion, creating a structural deficit of $775 million (about 7.9% of the budget). The practice of approving budgets with a structural deficit has been done for 24 consecutive years starting in 2000. Throughout those years, including present time, all budgets contemplated issuing bonds to cover these projected deficits rather than making structural adjustments. This practice increased Puerto Rico's cumulative debt, as the government had already been issuing bonds to balance its actual budget for four decades beginning in 1973.

The 2012 Budget of the government of Puerto Rico

Projected deficits added substantial burdens to an already indebted nation which accrued a public debt of $71B or about 70% of Puerto Rico's gross domestic product. This sparked an ongoing government-debt crisis after Puerto Rico's general obligation bonds were downgraded to speculative non-investment grade ("junk status") by three credit-rating agencies. In terms of financial control, almost 9.6%—or about $1.5 billion—of Puerto Rico's central government budget expenses for FY2014 is expected to be spent on debt service. Harsher budget cuts are expected as Puerto Rico must now repay larger chunks of debts in the coming years.[needs update]

For practical reasons the budget is divided into two aspects: a "general budget" which comprises the assignments funded exclusively by the Department of Treasury of Puerto Rico, and the "consolidated budget" which comprises the assignments funded by the general budget, by Puerto Rico's government-owned corporations, by revenue expected from loans, by the sale of government bonds, by subsidies extended by the federal government of the United States, and by other funds.

Both budgets contrast each other drastically, with the consolidated budget being usually thrice the size of the general budget; currently $29B and $9.0B respectively. Almost one out of every four dollars in the consolidated budget comes from U.S. federal subsidies while government-owned corporations compose more than 31% of the consolidated budget.

The critical aspects come from the sale of bonds, which comprise 7% of the consolidated budget – a ratio that increased annually due to the government's inability to prepare a balanced budget in addition to being incapable of generating enough income to cover all its expenses. In particular, the government-owned corporations add a heavy burden to the overall budget and public debt, as none is self-sufficient. For example, in FY2011 the government-owned corporations reported aggregated losses of more than $1.3B with the Puerto Rico Highways and Transportation Authority (PRHTA) reporting losses of $409M, the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA; the government monopoly that controls all electricity on the island) reporting losses of $272M, while the Puerto Rico Aqueducts and Sewers Authority (PRASA; the government monopoly that controls all water utilities on the island) reported losses of $112M.

Losses by government-owned corporations have been defrayed through the issuance of bonds compounding more than 40% of Puerto Rico's entire public debt today. Holistically, from FY2000–FY2010 Puerto Rico's debt grew at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 9% while GDP remained stagnant. This has not always provided a long-term solution. In early July 2017 for example, the PREPA power authority was effectively bankrupt after defaulting in a plan to restructure $9 billion in bond debt; the agency planned to seek Court protection.

In terms of protocol, the governor, together with the Puerto Rico Office of Management and Budget (OGP in Spanish), formulates the budget he believes is required to operate all government branches for the ensuing fiscal year. He then submits this formulation as a budget request to the Puerto Rican legislature before 1 July, the date established by law as the beginning of Puerto Rico's fiscal year. While the constitution establishes that the request must be submitted "at the beginning of each regular session", the request is typically submitted during the first week of May as the regular sessions of the legislature begin in January and it would be impractical to submit a request so far in advance. Once submitted, the budget is then approved by the legislature, typically with amendments, through a joint resolution and is referred back to the governor for his approval. The governor then either approves it or vetoes it. If vetoed, the legislature can then either refer it back with amendments for the governor's approval or approve it without the governor's consent by two-thirds of the bodies of each chamber.

Once the budget is approved, the Department of Treasury disburses funds to the Office of Management and Budget which in turn disburses the funds to the respective agencies, while the Puerto Rico Government Development Bank (the government's intergovernmental bank) manages all related banking affairs including those related to the government-owned corporations.

Cost of living

A map of the Jones Act merchant marine shipping routes for Puerto Rico

The cost of living in Puerto Rico is high and has increased over the past decade.

Statistics used for cost of living sometimes do not take into account certain costs, such as the high cost of electricity, which has hovered in the 24¢ to 30¢ range per kilowatt-hour, two to three times the national average, increased travel costs for longer flights, additional shipping fees, and the loss of promotional participation opportunities for customers "outside the continental United States". While some online stores do offer free shipping on orders to Puerto Rico, many merchants exclude Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico and other United States territories.

The household median income is stated as $19,350 and the mean income as $30,463 in the U.S. Census Bureau's 2015 update. The report also indicates that 45.5% of individuals are below the poverty level. The median home value in Puerto Rico ranges from U.S.$100,000 to U.S.$214,000, while the national median home value sits at $119,600.

Flying into San Juan

One of the most cited contributors to the high cost of living in Puerto Rico is the Merchant Marine Act of 1920, also known as the Jones Act, which prevents foreign-flagged ships from carrying cargo between two American ports, a practice known as cabotage. Because of the Jones Act, foreign ships inbound with goods from Central and South America, Western Europe, and Africa cannot stop in Puerto Rico, offload Puerto Rico-bound goods, load mainland-bound Puerto Rico-manufactured goods, and continue to U.S. ports. Instead, they must proceed directly to U.S. ports, where distributors break bulk and send Puerto Rico-bound manufactured goods to Puerto Rico across the ocean by U.S.-flagged ships.

The local government of Puerto Rico has requested several times to the U.S. Congress to exclude Puerto Rico from the Jones Act restrictions without success. The most recent measure has been taken by the 17th Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico through R. Conc. del S. 21. These measures have always received support from all the major local political parties.

In 2013 the Government Accountability Office published a report which concluded that "repealing or amending the Jones Act cabotage law might cut Puerto Rico shipping costs" and that "shippers believed that opening the trade to non-U.S.-flag competition could lower costs". The same GAO report also found that " doing business in Puerto Rico that GAO contacted reported that the freight rates are often—although not always—lower for foreign carriers going to and from Puerto Rico and foreign locations than the rates shippers pay to ship similar cargo to and from the United States, despite longer distances. Data were not available to allow us to validate the examples given or verify the extent to which this difference occurred." Ultimately, the report concluded that " effects of modifying the application of the Jones Act for Puerto Rico are highly uncertain" for both Puerto Rico and the United States, particularly for the U.S. shipping industry and the military preparedness of the United States.

A 2018 study by economists at Boston-based Reeve & Associates and Puerto Rico-based Estudios Tecnicos has concluded that the 1920 Jones Act has no impact on either retail prices or the cost of livings on Puerto Rico. The study found that Puerto Rico received very similar or lower shipping freight rates when compared to neighboring islands, and that the transportation costs have no impact on retail prices on the island. The study was based in part on actual comparison of consumer goods at retail stores in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and Jacksonville, Florida, finding: no significant difference in the prices of either grocery items or durable goods between the two locations.


Puerto Rico interstate highways

Cities and towns in Puerto Rico are interconnected by a system of roads, freeways, expressways, and highways maintained by the Highways and Transportation Authority under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and patrolled by the Puerto Rico Police Department. The island's San Juan metropolitan area is served by a public bus transit system and a metro system called Tren Urbano ('Urban Train'). Other forms of Puerto Rican public transport include seaborne ferries that serve Puerto Rico's archipelago as well as carros públicos (private mini buses).

Puerto Rico has three international airports, the Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport in Carolina, Mercedita International Airport in Ponce, and the Rafael Hernández International Airport in Aguadilla, and 27 local airports. The Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport is the largest aerial transportation hub in the Caribbean.

A Tren Urbano train at Bayamón Station

Puerto Rico has nine ports in different cities across the main island. The San Juan Port is the largest in Puerto Rico, and the busiest port in the Caribbean and the 10th busiest in the United States in terms of commercial activity and cargo movement, respectively. The second largest port is the Port of the Americas in Ponce, currently under expansion to increase cargo capacity to 1.5 million twenty-foot containers (TEUs) per year.



The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA, Spanish: Autoridad de Energía Eléctrica, AEE)—is an electric power company and the government-owned corporation of Puerto Rico responsible for electricity generation, power transmission, and power distribution in Puerto Rico. PREPA was, by law, the only entity authorized to conduct such business in Puerto Rico, effectively making it a government monopoly until 2018. The Authority is ruled by a governing board appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate of Puerto Rico, and is run by an executive director.

On 20 July 2018, Puerto Rico Law 120-2018 (Ley para Transformar el Sistema Eléctrico de Puerto Rico) was signed. This law authorized PREPA to sell infrastructure and services to other providers. As a result, a contract was signed on 22 June 2020, making LUMA Energy the new operator of the energy distribution and transmission infrastructure, as well as other areas of PREPA's operations, in effect partially privatizing the Puerto Rican power grid. The takeover was set for 1 June 2021, amidst protests and uncertainty from the point of view of the general public and the former-PREPA workers and union members.

Water and sewage

Similarly, the Puerto Rico Aqueducts and Sewers Authority (PRASA, Spanish: Autoridad de Acueductos y Alcantarillados, AAA)—is a water company and the government-owned corporation responsible for water quality, management, and supply in Puerto Rico. It is the only entity authorized to conduct such business in Puerto Rico, effectively making it a government monopoly. Its existence is designated by Law No. 40 of 1 May 1945, including the corresponding amendments.


Telecommunications in Puerto Rico includes radio, television, fixed and mobile telephones, and the Internet. Broadcasting in Puerto Rico is regulated by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC). As of 2007, there were 30 TV stations, 125 radio stations and roughly 1 million TV sets on the island. Cable TV subscription services are available, and the U.S. Armed Forces Radio and Television Service also broadcast on the island. Puerto Rico also has its own amateur radio prefixes, which differ from those of the contiguous United States in that there are two letter before the number. The most well-known prefix is KP4, but others separated for use on the archipelago (including Desecheo and Mona) are: KP3/KP4/NP3/NP4/WP3/WP4 (Puerto Rico, Vieques and Culebra) and KP5/NP5/WP5 (Desecheo Island). Amateur radio operators (also known as ham radio operators) are a well-known group in the island and can obtain special vehicle license plates with their callsign on them. They have been a key element in disaster relief.


Historical population
1765–2020 (*1899 shown as 1900)

The population of Puerto Rico has been shaped by initial Amerindian settlement, European colonization, slavery, economic migration, and Puerto Rico's status as unincorporated territory of the United States.

Population distribution

The most populous municipality is the capital, San Juan, with 342,259 people based on the 2020 Census. Other major cities include Bayamón, Carolina, Ponce, and Caguas. Of the ten most populous cities on the island, eight are located within what is considered San Juan's metropolitan area, while the other two are located in the south (Ponce) and west (Mayagüez) of the island.

Largest cities or towns in Puerto Rico
2020 Census
Rank Name Metropolitan Statistical Area Pop.
San Juan
San Juan
1 San Juan San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo 342,259 Carolina
2 Bayamón San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo 185,187
3 Carolina San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo 154,815
4 Ponce Ponce 137,491
5 Caguas San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo 127,244
6 Guaynabo San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo 89,780
7 Arecibo San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo 87,754
8 Toa Baja San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo 75,293
9 Mayagüez Mayagüez 73,077
10 Trujillo Alto San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo 67,740

Population makeup

Racial and Ethnic Composition in Puerto Rico (2020 Census)
Two or more races
American Indian
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
Other races

Puerto Rico was 98.9% Hispanic or Latino in 2020, of that 95.5% were Puerto Rican and 3.4% were Hispanic of non-Puerto Rican origins. Only 1.1% of the population was non-Hispanic. The population of Puerto Rico according to the 2020 census was 3,285,874, an 11.8% decrease since the 2010 United States Census. The commonwealth's population peaked in 2000, when it was 3,808,610, before declining (for the first time in census history) to 3,725,789 in 2010. Emigration due to economic difficulties and natural disasters, coupled with a low birth rate, have caused the population decline to continue in recent years.

Censuses of Puerto Rico were completed by Spain in 1765, 1775, 1800, 1815, 1832, 1846 and 1857, yet some of the data remained untabulated and was not considered to reliable, according to Irene Barnes Taeuber, an American demographer who worked for the Office of Population Research at Princeton University.

Continuous European immigration and high natural increase helped the population of Puerto Rico grow from 155,426 in 1800 to almost a million by the close of the 19th century. A census conducted by royal decree on 30 September 1858, gave the following totals of the Puerto Rican population at that time: 341,015 were free colored; 300,430 were white; and 41,736 were slaves. A census in 1887 found a population of around 800,000, of which 320,000 were black.

Population age pyramid of Puerto Rico in 2020.

During the 19th century, hundreds of families arrived in Puerto Rico, primarily from the Canary Islands and Andalusia, but also from other parts of Spain such as Catalonia, Asturias, Galicia and the Balearic Islands and numerous Spanish loyalists from Spain's former colonies in South America. Settlers from outside Spain also arrived in the islands, including from Corsica, France, Lebanon, Portugal, Ireland, Scotland, Germany and Italy. This immigration from non-Hispanic countries was the result of the Real Cédula de Gracias de 1815 (Royal Decree of Graces of 1815), which allowed European Catholics to settle in the island with land allotments in the interior of the island, provided they paid taxes and continued to support the Catholic Church.

Between 1960 and 1990, the census questionnaire in Puerto Rico did not ask about race or ethnicity. The 2000 United States Census included a racial self-identification question in Puerto Rico. According to the census, most Puerto Ricans identified as white and Latino; few identified as black or some other race.

Population genetics

Population density, Census 2000

A group of researchers from Puerto Rican universities conducted a study of mitochondrial DNA that revealed that the modern population of Puerto Rico has a high genetic component of Taíno and Guanche (especially of the island of Tenerife). Other studies show Amerindian ancestry in addition to the Taíno.

One genetic study on the racial makeup of Puerto Ricans (including all races) found them to be roughly around 61% West Eurasian/North African (overwhelmingly of Spanish provenance), 27% Sub-Saharan African and 11% Native American. Another genetic study, from 2007, claimed that "the average genomewide individual (i.e., Puerto Rican) ancestry proportions have been estimated as 66%, 18%, and 16%, for European, West African, and Native American, respectively." Another study estimates 63.7% European, 21.2% (Sub-Saharan) African, and 15.2% Native American; European ancestry is more prevalent in the West and in Central Puerto Rico, African in Eastern Puerto Rico, and Native American in Northern Puerto Rico.


A Pew Research survey indicated an adult literacy rate of 90.4% in 2012 based on data from the United Nations.

Life expectancy

Puerto Rico has a life expectancy of approximately 81.0 years according to the CIA World Factbook, an improvement from 78.7 years in 2010. This means Puerto Rico has the second-highest life expectancy in the United States, if territories are taken into account.

Immigration and emigration

Racial groups
Year Population White Mixed (mainly biracial white European and black African) Black Asian Other
2000 3,808,610 80.5% (3,064,862) 11.0% (418,426) 8.0% (302,933) 0.2% (7,960) 0.4% (14,429)
2010 3,725,789 75.8% (2,824,148) 11.1% (413,563) 12.4% (461,998) 0.2% (7,452) 0.6% (22,355)
2016 3,195,153 68.9% (2,201,460) n/a (n/a) 9.8% (313,125) 0.2% (6,390) 0.8% (25,561)

The vast majority of recent immigrants, both legal and illegal, come from Latin America, over half come from the Dominican Republic. Dominicans represent 53% of non-Puerto Rican Hispanics, about 1.8% of Puerto Rico's population. Some illegal immigrants, particularly from Haiti, Dominican Republic, and Cuba[citation needed], use Puerto Rico as a temporary stop-over point to get to the U.S. mainland. Other major sources of recent immigrants include Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Haiti, Honduras, Panama, Ecuador, Spain, and Jamaica. Additionally, there are many non-Puerto Rican U.S. citizens settling in Puerto Rico from the mainland United States, majority of which are White Americans and a smaller number are Black Americans. In fact, non-hispanic people represent 1.1% and majority of them are from the mainland United States. Smaller numbers of U.S. citizens come from the U.S. Virgin Islands. There are also large numbers of Nuyoricans and other stateside Puerto Ricans coming back, as many Puerto Ricans engage in 'circular migration'. Small numbers of non-Puerto Rican Hispanics in Puerto Rico are actually American-born migrants from the mainland United States and not recent immigrants. Most recent immigrants settle in and around the San Juan metropolitan area.

Emigration is a major part of contemporary Puerto Rican history. Starting soon after World War II, poverty, cheap airfares, and promotion by the island government caused waves of Puerto Ricans to move to the United States mainland, particularly to the northeastern states and nearby Florida. This trend continued even as Puerto Rico's economy improved and its birth rate declined. Puerto Ricans continue to follow a pattern of "circular migration", with some migrants returning to the island. In recent years, the population has declined markedly, falling nearly 1% in 2012 and an additional 1% (36,000 people) in 2013 due to a falling birthrate and emigration. The impact of hurricanes Maria and Irma in 2017, combined with the unincorporated territory's worsening economy, led to its greatest population decline since the U.S. acquired the archipelago.

According to the 2020 United States census, the number of Puerto Ricans living outside of Puerto Rico in the United States is almost twice as many as those living in Puerto Rico. As those who leave tend to be better educated than those who remain, this accentuates the drain on Puerto Rico's economy.

Based on 1 July 2019 estimate by the U.S. Census Bureau, the population of the Commonwealth had declined by 532,095 people since the 2010 Census data had been tabulated.


The official languages of the executive branch of government of Puerto Rico are Spanish and English, with Spanish being the primary language. Spanish is, and has been, the only official language of the entire Commonwealth judiciary system, despite a 1902 English-only language law. However, all official business of the U.S. District Court for the District of Puerto Rico is conducted in English. English is the primary language of less than 10% of the population. Spanish is the dominant language of business, education and daily life on the island, spoken by nearly 95% of the population.

Out of people aged five and older, 94.3% speak only Spanish at home, 5.5% speak English, and 0.2% speak other languages.

In Puerto Rico, public school instruction is conducted almost entirely in Spanish. There have been pilot programs in about a dozen of the over 1,400 public schools aimed at conducting instruction in English only. Objections from teaching staff are common, perhaps because many of them are not fully fluent in English. English is taught as a second language and is a compulsory subject from elementary levels to high school. The languages of the deaf community are American Sign Language and its local variant, Puerto Rican Sign Language.

The Spanish of Puerto Rico has evolved into having many idiosyncrasies in vocabulary and syntax that differentiate it from the Spanish spoken elsewhere. As a product of Puerto Rican history, the island possesses a unique Spanish dialect. Puerto Rican Spanish utilizes many Taíno words, as well as English words. The largest influence on the Spanish spoken in Puerto Rico is that of the Canary Islands. Taíno loanwords are most often used in the context of vegetation, natural phenomena, and native musical instruments. Similarly, words attributed to primarily West African languages were adopted in the contexts of foods, music, and dances, particularly in coastal towns with concentrations of descendants of Sub-Saharan Africans.


Religious affiliation in Puerto Rico (2014)

  Protestantism (33%)
  Other (3%)
  Irreligious (8%)

Catholicism was brought by Spanish colonists and gradually became the dominant religion in Puerto Rico. The first dioceses in the Americas, including that of Puerto Rico, were authorized by Pope Julius II in 1511. In 1512, priests were established for the parochial churches. By 1759, there was a priest for each church. One Pope, John Paul II, visited Puerto Rico in October 1984. All municipalities in Puerto Rico have at least one Catholic church, most of which are located at the town center, or plaza.

Protestantism, which was suppressed under the Spanish Catholic regime, has reemerged under United States rule, making contemporary Puerto Rico more interconfessional than in previous centuries, although Catholicism continues to be the dominant religion. The first Protestant church, Iglesia de la Santísima Trinidad, was established in Ponce by the Anglican Diocese of Antigua in 1872. It was the first non-Catholic church in the entire Spanish Empire in the Americas.

Pollster Pablo Ramos stated in 1998 that the population was 38% Roman Catholic, 28% Pentecostal, and 18% were members of independent churches, which would give a Protestant percentage of 46% if the last two populations are combined. Protestants collectively added up to almost two million people. Another researcher gave a more conservative assessment of the proportion of Protestants:

Puerto Rico, by virtue of its long political association with the United States, is the most Protestant of Latin American countries, with a Protestant population of approximately 33 to 38 percent, the majority of whom are Pentecostal. David Stoll calculates that if we extrapolate the growth rates of evangelical churches from 1960 to 1985 for another twenty-five years Puerto Rico will become 75 percent evangelical. (Ana Adams: "Brincando el Charco..." in Power, Politics and Pentecostals in Latin America, Edward Cleary, ed., 1997. p. 164).

An Associated Press article in March 2014 stated that "more than 70 percent of whom identify themselves as Catholic" but provided no source for this information.

The CIA World Factbook reports that 85% of the population of Puerto Rico identifies as Roman Catholic, while 15% identify as Protestant and Other. Neither a date or a source for that information is provided and may not be recent. A 2013 Pew Research survey found that only about 45% of Puerto Rican adults identified themselves as Catholic, 29% as Protestant and 20% as unaffiliated with a religion. The people surveyed by Pew consisted of Puerto Ricans living in the 50 states and DC and may not be indicative of those living in the Commonwealth.

Cathedral of San Juan, built between 1535 and 1802.

By 2014, a Pew Research report, with the sub-title Widespread Change in a Historically Catholic Region, indicated that only 56% of Puerto Ricans were Catholic, 33% were Protestant, and 8% were unaffiliated; this survey was completed between October 2013 and February 2014.

An Eastern Orthodox community, the Dormition of the Most Holy Theotokos / St. Spyridon's Church is located in Trujillo Alto, and serves the small Orthodox community in the area. In 2017, the church entered communion with the Roman Catholic Church, becoming the first Eastern Catholic Church in Puerto Rico. This affiliation accounted for under 1% of the population in 2010 according to the Pew Research report. There are two Eastern Orthodox Churches in the territory the Russian Orthodox Mission Saint John Climacus in San German which is expected to become a full Parish within the coming years and the Saint George Antiochian Orthodox Church in Carolina, both have services in English and Spanish and on available visiting clergy Arabic and Russian might be also used. Archived 11 September 2023 at the Wayback Machine There is a small Syriac Orthodox church in Aguada which is also the only Oriental Orthodox in the Island and serves a small growing community in the area. In 1940, Juanita García Peraza founded the Mita Congregation, the first religion of Puerto Rican origin. Taíno religious practices have been rediscovered/reinvented to a degree by a handful of advocates. Similarly, some aspects of African religious traditions have been kept by some adherents. African slaves brought and maintained various ethnic African religious practices associated with different peoples; in particular, the Yoruba beliefs of Santería or Ifá, and the Kongo-derived Palo Mayombe. Some aspects were absorbed into syncretic Christianity. In 1952, a handful of American Jews established the island's first synagogue; this religion accounts for under 1% of the population in 2010 according to the Pew Research report. The synagogue, called Sha'are Zedeck, hired its first rabbi in 1954. Puerto Rico has the largest Jewish community in the Caribbean, numbering 3000 people, and is the only Caribbean island in which the Conservative, Reform and Orthodox Jewish movements all are represented. In 2007, there were about 5,000 Muslims in Puerto Rico, representing about 0.13% of the population. Eight mosques are located throughout the island, with most Muslims living in Río Piedras and Caguas; most Muslims are of Palestinian and Jordanian descent. There is also a Baháʼí community. In 2023, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints dedicated a temple in San Juan, and reported having a membership of approximately 23,000 in the commonwealth. In 2015, the 25,832 Jehovah's Witnesses represented about 0.70% of the population, with 324 congregations. Buddhism in Puerto Rico is represented with Nichiren, Zen and Tibetan Buddhism, with the New York Padmasambhava Buddhist Center for example having a branch in San Juan. There are several atheist activist and educational organizations, and an atheistic parody religion called the Pastafarian Church of Puerto Rico. An ISKCON temple in Gurabo is devoted to Krishna, with two preaching centers in the San Juan metropolitan area.


The first school in Puerto Rico was the Escuela de Gramática (Grammar School). It was established by Bishop Alonso Manso in 1513, in the area where the Cathedral of San Juan was to be constructed. The school was free of charge and the courses taught were Latin language, literature, history, science, art, philosophy and theology.

Education in Puerto Rico is divided in three levels—Primary (elementary school grades 1–6), Secondary (intermediate and high school grades 7–12), and Higher Level (undergraduate and graduate studies). As of 2002, the literacy rate of the Puerto Rican population was 94.1%; by gender, it was 93.9% for males and 94.4% for females. According to the 2000 Census, 60.0% of the population attained a high school degree or higher level of education, and 18.3% has a bachelor's degree or higher.

Instruction at the primary school level is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 18. As of 2010, there are 1539 public schools and 806 private schools.

The largest and oldest university system is the public University of Puerto Rico (UPR) with 11 campuses. The largest private university systems on the island are the Sistema Universitario Ana G. Mendez which operates the Universidad del Turabo, Metropolitan University and Universidad del Este. Other private universities include the multi-campus Inter American University, the Pontifical Catholic University, Universidad Politécnica de Puerto Rico, and the Universidad del Sagrado Corazón. Puerto Rico has four schools of Medicine and three ABA-approved Law Schools.


Old Hospital Doctor Pila in Barrio Primero, Ponce city.

In 2017, there were 69 hospitals in Puerto Rico.

Reforma de Salud de Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico Health Reform) – locally referred to as La Reforma ('The Reform') – is a government-run program which provides medical and health care services to the indigent and impoverished, by means of contracting private health insurance companies, rather than employing government-owned hospitals and emergency centers. The Reform is administered by the Puerto Rico Health Insurance Administration.


Modern Puerto Rican culture is a unique mix of cultural antecedents: including European (predominantly Spanish, Italian, French, German and Irish), African, and, more recently, some North American and many South Americans. Many Cubans and Dominicans have relocated to the island in the past few decades.

From the Spanish, Puerto Rico received the Spanish language, the Catholic religion and the vast majority of their cultural and moral values and traditions. The United States added English-language influence, the university system and the adoption of some holidays and practices. On 12 March 1903, the University of Puerto Rico was officially founded, branching out from the "Escuela Normal Industrial", a smaller organization that was founded in Fajardo three years earlier.

Much of Puerto Rican culture centers on the influence of music and has been shaped by other cultures combining with local and traditional rhythms. Early in the history of Puerto Rican music, the influences of Spanish and African traditions were most noticeable. The cultural movements across the Caribbean and North America have played a vital role in the more recent musical influences which have reached Puerto Rico.

Puerto Rico has many symbols, but only the Flor de Maga has been made official by the Government of Puerto Rico. Other popular, traditional, or unofficial symbols of Puerto Rico are the Puerto Rican spindalis, the kapok tree, the coquí frog, the jíbaro, the Taíno Indian, and Cerro Las Tetas with its jíbaro culture monument.


The architecture of Puerto Rico demonstrates a broad variety of traditions, styles and national influences accumulated over four centuries of Spanish rule, and a century of American rule. Spanish colonial architecture, Ibero-Islamic, art deco, post-modern, and many other architectural forms are visible throughout the island. From town to town, there are also many regional distinctions.

Street-lined homes in Old San Juan

Old San Juan is one of the two barrios, in addition to Santurce, that made up the municipality of San Juan from 1864 to 1951, at which time the former independent municipality of Río Piedras was annexed. With its abundance of shops, historic places, museums, open air cafés, restaurants, gracious homes, tree-shaded plazas, and its old beauty and architectonical peculiarity, Old San Juan is a main spot for local and internal tourism. The district is also characterized by numerous public plazas and churches including San José Church and the Cathedral of San Juan Bautista, which contains the tomb of the Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León. It also houses the oldest Catholic school for elementary education in Puerto Rico, the Colegio de Párvulos, built in 1865.

The oldest parts of the district of Old San Juan remain partly enclosed by massive walls. Several defensive structures and notable forts, such as the emblematic Fort San Felipe del Morro, Fort San Cristóbal, and El Palacio de Santa Catalina, also known as La Fortaleza, acted as the primary defenses of the settlement which was subjected to numerous attacks. La Fortaleza continues to serve also as the executive mansion for the governor of Puerto Rico. Many of the historic fortifications are part of San Juan National Historic Site.

During the 1940s, sections of Old San Juan fell into disrepair, and many renovation plans were suggested. There was even a strong push to develop Old San Juan as a "small Manhattan". Strict remodeling codes were implemented to prevent new constructions from affecting the common colonial Spanish architectural themes of the old city. When a project proposal suggested that the old Carmelite Convent in San Juan be demolished to erect a new hotel, the Institute had the building declared as a historic building, and then asked that it be converted to a hotel in a renewed facility. This was what became the Hotel El Convento in Old San Juan. The paradigm to reconstruct and renovate the old city and revitalize it has been followed by other cities in the Americas, particularly Havana, Lima and Cartagena de Indias.

Parque de Bombas, a landmark of Ponce, a former fire station built in 1882.

Ponce Creole is a unique architectural style created in Ponce, Puerto Rico, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This style of Puerto Rican buildings is found predominantly in residential homes in Ponce that developed between 1895 and 1920. Ponce Creole architecture borrows heavily from the traditions of France, Spain and the Caribbean vernacular to create houses that were especially built to withstand the hot and dry climate of the region, and to take advantage of the sun and sea breezes characteristic of the southern Puerto Rico's Caribbean Sea coast. It is a blend of wood and masonry, incorporating architectural elements of other styles, from Classical revival and Spanish Revival to Victorian.


María de los Dolores Gutiérrez del Mazo, in colonial Puerto Rico, in 1796, by the mulatto Rococo painter José Campeche. Painting currently housed in the Brooklyn Museum.

Puerto Rican art reflects many influences, much from its ethnically diverse background. A form of folk art, called santos evolved from the Catholic Church's use of sculptures to convert indigenous Puerto Ricans to Christianity. Santos depict figures of saints and other religious icons and are made from native wood, clay, and stone. After shaping simple, they are often finished by painting them in vivid colors. Santos vary in size, with the smallest examples around eight inches tall and the largest about twenty inches tall. Traditionally, santos were seen as messengers between the earth and Heaven. As such, they occupied a special place on household altars, where people prayed to them, asked for help, or tried to summon their protection.

Also popular, caretas or vejigantes are masks worn during carnivals. Similar masks signifying evil spirits were used in both Spain and Africa, though for different purposes. The Spanish used their masks to frighten lapsed Christians into returning to the church, while tribal Africans used them as protection from the evil spirits they represented. True to their historic origins, Puerto Rican caretas always bear at least several horns and fangs. While usually constructed of papier-mâché, coconut shells and fine metal screening are sometimes used as well. Red and black were the typical colors for caretas but their palette has expanded to include a wide variety of bright hues and patterns.


Eugenio María de Hostos

Puerto Rican literature evolved from the art of oral story telling to its present-day status. Written works by the native islanders of Puerto Rico were prohibited and repressed by the Spanish colonial government. Only those who were commissioned by the Spanish Crown to document the chronological history of the island were allowed to write.

Diego de Torres Vargas was allowed to circumvent this strict prohibition for three reasons: he was a priest, he came from a prosperous Spanish family, and his father was a Sergeant Major in the Spanish Army, who died while defending Puerto Rico from an invasion by the Dutch armada. In 1647, Torres Vargas wrote Descripción de la Ciudad e Isla de Puerto Rico ("Description of the Island and City of Puerto Rico"). This historical book was the first to make a detailed geographic description of the island.

The book described all the fruits and commercial establishments of the time, mostly centered in the towns of San Juan and Ponce. The book also listed and described every mine, church, and hospital in the island at the time. The book contained notices on the State and Capital, plus an extensive and erudite bibliography. Descripción de la Ciudad e Isla de Puerto Rico was the first successful attempt at writing a comprehensive history of Puerto Rico.

Some of Puerto Rico's earliest writers were influenced by the teachings of Rafael Cordero. Among these was Manuel A. Alonso, the first Puerto Rican writer of notable importance. In 1849 he published El Gíbaro, a collection of verses whose main themes were the poor Puerto Rican country farmer. Eugenio María de Hostos wrote La peregrinación de Bayoán in 1863, which used Bartolomé de las Casas as a springboard to reflect on Caribbean identity. After this first novel, Hostos abandoned fiction in favor of the essay which he saw as offering greater possibilities for inspiring social change.

In the late 19th century, with the arrival of the first printing press and the founding of the Royal Academy of Belles Letters, Puerto Rican literature began to flourish. The first writers to express their political views in regard to Spanish colonial rule of the island were journalists. After the United States invaded Puerto Rico during the Spanish–American War and the island was ceded to the Americans as a condition of the Treaty of Paris of 1898, writers and poets began to express their opposition to the new colonial rule by writing about patriotic themes.

Alejandro Tapia y Rivera, also known as the Father of Puerto Rican Literature, ushered in a new age of historiography with the publication of The Historical Library of Puerto Rico. Cayetano Coll y Toste was another Puerto Rican historian and writer. His work The Indo-Antillano Vocabulary is valuable in understanding the way the Taínos lived. Manuel Zeno Gandía in 1894 wrote La Charca and talked about the harsh life in the remote and mountainous coffee regions in Puerto Rico. Antonio S. Pedreira, described in his work Insularismo the cultural survival of the Puerto Rican identity after the American invasion.

With the Puerto Rican diaspora of the 1940s, Puerto Rican literature was greatly influenced by a phenomenon known as the Nuyorican Movement. Puerto Rican literature continued to flourish, and many Puerto Ricans have since distinguished themselves as authors, journalists, poets, novelists, playwrights, essayists, and screenwriters. The influence of Puerto Rican literature has transcended the boundaries of the island to the United States and the rest of the world. Over the past fifty years, significant writers include Ed Vega (Omaha Bigelow), Miguel Piñero (Short Eyes), Piri Thomas (Down These Mean Streets), Giannina Braschi (Yo-Yo Boing!), Rosario Ferrer (Eccentric Neighborhoods). and Esmeralda Santiago (When I was Puerto Rican).


The mass media in Puerto Rico includes local radio stations, television stations and newspapers, the majority of which are conducted in Spanish. There are also three stations of the U.S. Armed Forces Radio and Television Service. Newspapers with daily distribution are El Nuevo Día, El Vocero and Índice, Metro, and Primera Hora. El Vocero is distributed free of charge, as are Índice and Metro.

Newspapers distributed on a weekly or regional basis include Claridad, La Perla del Sur, La Opinión, Visión, and La Estrella del Norte, among others. Several television channels provide local content in the island. These include WIPR-TV, Telemundo, Univision affiliate WLII-DT (Teleonce), WAPA-TV, and WKAQ-TV.


A dancer performs typical bomba choreography.

The music of Puerto Rico has evolved as a heterogeneous and dynamic product of diverse cultural resources. The most conspicuous musical sources have been Spain and West Africa, although many aspects of Puerto Rican music reflect origins elsewhere in Europe and the Caribbean and, over the last century, from the U.S. Puerto Rican music culture today comprises a wide and rich variety of genres, ranging from indigenous genres like bomba, plena, aguinaldo, danza and the popular salsa to recent hybrids like reggaeton.

Puerto Rico has some national instruments, like the cuatro (Spanish for "four"). The cuatro is a local instrument that was made by the "Jibaro" or people from the mountains. Originally, the Cuatro consisted of four steel strings, hence its name, but currently the Cuatro consists of five double steel strings. It is easily confused with a guitar, even by locals. When held upright, from right to left, the strings are G, D, A, E, B.

In the realm of classical music, the island hosts two main orchestras, the Orquesta Sinfónica de Puerto Rico and the Orquesta Filarmónica de Puerto Rico. The Casals Festival takes place annually in San Juan, drawing in classical musicians from around the world.

With respect to opera, the legendary Puerto Rican tenor Antonio Paoli was so celebrated, that he performed private recitals for Pope Pius X and Tsar Nicholas II of Russia. In 1907, Paoli was the first operatic artist in world history to record an entire opera – when he participated in a performance of Pagliacci by Ruggiero Leoncavallo in Milan, Italy.


San Juan 450th 1971 issue, depicting one of the garitas of El Morro

Puerto Rico has been commemorated on four U.S. postal stamps and four personalities have been featured. Insular Territories were commemorated in 1937, the third stamp honored Puerto Rico featuring 'La Fortaleza', the Spanish Governor's Palace. The first free election for governor of the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico was honored on 27 April 1949, at San Juan, Puerto Rico. 'Inauguration' on the 3-cent stamp refers to the election of Luis Muñoz Marín, the first democratically elected governor of Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico was commemorated with an 8-cent stamp on its 450th anniversary issued 12 September 1971, featuring a sentry box from Castillo San Felipe del Morro. In the "Flags of our nation series" 2008–2012, of the fifty-five, five territorial flags were featured. Forever stamps included the Puerto Rico Flag illustrated by a bird issued 2011.

Four Puerto Rican personalities have been featured on U.S. postage stamps. These include Roberto Clemente in 1984 as an individual and in the Legends of Baseball series issued in 2000. Luis Muñoz Marín in the Great Americans series, on 18 February 1990, Julia de Burgos in the Literary Arts series, issued 2010, and José Ferrer in the Distinguished American series, issued 2012.


Arroz con gandules, widely regarded as "Puerto Rico's national dish"

Puerto Rican cuisine has its roots in the cooking traditions and practices of Europe (Spain), Africa and the native Taínos. Basic ingredients include grains and legumes, herbs and spices, starchy tropical tubers, vegetables, meat and poultry, seafood and shellfish, and fruits. Main dishes include mofongo, arroz con gandules, pasteles, and pig roast (or lechón). Beverages include maví and piña colada. Desserts include flan, arroz con dulce (sweet rice pudding), piraguas, brazo gitanos, tembleque, polvorones, and dulce de leche. From the diet of the Taíno people come many tropical roots and tubers like yautía (taro) and especially Yuca (cassava), from which thin cracker-like casabe bread is made. Ajicito or cachucha pepper, a slightly hot habanero pepper, recao/culantro (spiny leaf), achiote (annatto), peppers, allspice, ají caballero (the hottest pepper native to Puerto Rico), peanuts, guavas, pineapples, jicacos (cocoplum), quenepas (mamoncillo), lerenes (Guinea arrowroot), calabazas (tropical pumpkins), and guanabanas (soursops) are all Taíno foods. Spanish / European influence can be seen in the use of wheat, chickpeas, capers, olives, onions, garlic, rice, cilantro, oregano, basil, sugarcane, citrus, eggplant, chicken, salted cod, beef, pork, lamb, dairy and a variety of other fruits, herbs and spices all came to Puerto Rico from Spain.


2013 World Baseball Classic championship between Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic, March 20, 2013

Baseball was one of the first sports to gain widespread popularity in Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rico Baseball League serves as the only active professional league, operating as a winter league. No Major League Baseball franchise or affiliate plays in Puerto Rico; however, San Juan hosted the Montreal Expos for several series in 2003 and 2004 before they moved to Washington, D.C., and became the Washington Nationals.

The Puerto Rico national baseball team has participated in the World Cup of Baseball winning one gold (1951), four silver and four bronze medals, the Caribbean Series (winning fourteen times) and the World Baseball Classic. In March 2006, San Juan's Hiram Bithorn Stadium hosted the opening round as well as the second round of the newly formed World Baseball Classic. Puerto Rican baseball players include Hall of Famers Roberto Clemente, Orlando Cepeda and Roberto Alomar, enshrined in 1973, 1999, and 2011 respectively.

Boxing, basketball, and volleyball are considered popular sports as well. Wilfredo Gómez and McWilliams Arroyo have won their respective divisions at the World Amateur Boxing Championships. Other medalists include José Pedraza, who holds a silver medal, and three boxers who finished in third place, José Luis Vellón, Nelson Dieppa and McJoe Arroyo. In the professional circuit, Puerto Rico has the third-most boxing world champions and it is the global leader in champions per capita. These include Miguel Cotto, Félix Trinidad, Wilfred Benítez and Gómez among others.

The Puerto Rico national basketball team joined the International Basketball Federation in 1957. Since then, it has won more than 30 medals in international competitions, including gold in three FIBA Americas Championships and the 1994 Goodwill Games 8 August 2004, became a landmark date for the team when it became the first team to defeat the United States in an Olympic tournament since the integration of National Basketball Association players. Winning the inaugural game with scores of 92–73 as part of the 2004 Summer Olympics organized in Athens, Greece. Baloncesto Superior Nacional acts as the top-level professional basketball league in Puerto Rico and has experienced success since its beginning in 1930.

Puerto Rico Islanders fans at a soccer game

Puerto Rico is also a member of FIFA and CONCACAF. In 2008, the archipelago's first unified league, the Puerto Rico Soccer League, was established.

Other sports include professional wrestling and road running. The World Wrestling Council and International Wrestling Association are the largest wrestling promotions in the main island. The World's Best 10K, held annually in San Juan, has been ranked among the 20 most competitive races globally. The "Puerto Rico All Stars" team, which has won twelve world championships in unicycle basketball.

Organized Streetball has gathered some exposition, with teams like "Puerto Rico Street Ball" competing against established organizations including the Capitanes de Arecibo and AND1's Mixtape Tour Team. Six years after the first visit, AND1 returned as part of their renamed Live Tour, losing to the Puerto Rico Streetballers. Consequently, practitioners of this style have earned participation in international teams, including Orlando "El Gato" Meléndez, who became the first Puerto Rican born athlete to play for the Harlem Globetrotters. Orlando Antigua, whose mother is Puerto Rican, in 1995 became the first Latino and the first non-black in 52 years to play for the Harlem Globetrotters.

Puerto Rico has representation in all international competitions including the Summer and Winter Olympics, the Pan American Games, the Caribbean World Series, and the Central American and Caribbean Games. Puerto Rico hosted the Pan Am Games in 1979 (officially in San Juan), and The Central American and Caribbean Games were hosted in 1993 in Ponce and in 2010 in Mayagüez.

Puerto Rican athletes have won ten medals in Olympic competition (two gold, two silver, six bronze), the first one in 1948 by boxer Juan Evangelista Venegas. Monica Puig won the first gold medal for Puerto Rico in the Olympic Games by winning the Women's Tennis singles title in Rio 2016.

See also


  1. ^ a b The definition of Commonwealth according to U.S. State Department policy (as codified in the department's Foreign Affairs Manual) reads: "The term 'Commonwealth' does not describe or provide for any specific political status or relationship."
  2. ^ Despite being under the sovereignty of the United States since 1898, Puerto Rico has not been fully incorporated into the country for constitutional purposes. See the page for the Insular Cases for more information.
  3. ^ The term boricua is gender-neutral, whereas the terms puertorriqueño, borinqueño, borincano, and puertorro are male-specific when ending in «o» and female-specific when ending in «a».
  4. ^ The term puertorro -a is used popularly, spontaneously, and politely to refer to Puerto Ricans or Puerto Rico. It is occasionally mistaken for a pejorative, but the term is not considered offensive by Puerto Ricans. It has been most famously used by Puerto Rican musicians, including Bobby Valentín in his song Soy Boricua (1972), Andy Montañez in En Mi Puertorro (2006), and Bad Bunny in ACHO PR (2023).
  5. ^ Cerro de Punta in the Cordillera Central mountain range is the highest elevation in Puerto Rico.
  6. ^ Puerto Rico is the 4th most populated island in the Caribbean, 27th most populated island in the world, and 136th most populated country or dependency in the world.
  7. ^ The total area of Puerto Rico, the main island of the archipelago of the same name, is 5,325 m² (13,792 km²). The land and internal costal water area is 3,513 m² (9,100 km²), with land covering 3,424 m² (8,868 km²) and internal costal waters 89 m² (232 km²). The territorial waters of Puerto Rico stretch for 1,812 m² (4,692 km²). However, like all other countries and dependencies, the most widely accepted and used area of Puerto Rico does not include its territorial waters. Excluding its 1,812 m² (4,692 km²) of territorial sea, the land and internal coastal water area of Puerto Rico is 3,513 m² (9,100 km²), making it the 4th biggest Caribbean island, 81st biggest world island, and 175th biggest country or dependency in the world. See Geography of Puerto Rico.
  8. ^ Puerto Rico, the main island of the archipelago of the same name, is 178 kilometers long (110 statute miles; 96 nautical miles) and 65 kilometers wide (40 statute miles; 35 nautical miles). Boricuas often refer to Puerto Rico as 100x35 (Spanish: 100por35), a direct reference to the island's size in nautical miles. Various Puerto Rican singers have used the term, including Farruko and Pedro Capó in their song Jíbaro (2021).
  9. ^ Pronunciation:
  10. ^ Spanish: Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit.'Free Associated State of Puerto Rico'
  11. ^ See the Political status of Puerto Rico article for more information.
  12. ^ Proyecto Salón Hogar (in Spanish) "Los españoles le cambiaron el nombre de Borikén a San Juan Bautista y a la capital le llamaron Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Con los años, Ciudad de Puerto Rico pasó a ser San Juan, y San Juan Bautista pasó a ser Puerto Rico."
  13. ^ In 1932, the U.S. Congress officially back-corrected the former Anglicization of Porto Rico into the Spanish name Puerto Rico. It had been using the former spelling in its legislative and judicial records since it acquired the archipelago. Patricia Gherovici states that both Porto Rico and Puerto Rico were used interchangeably in the news media and documentation before, during, and after the U.S. conquest of the island in 1898. The Porto spelling, for instance, was used in the Treaty of Paris, but Puerto was used by The New York Times that same year. Nancy Morris clarifies that "a curious oversight in the drafting of the Foraker Act caused the name of the island to be officially misspelled". However, Gervasio Luis Garcia traces the Anglicized spelling to a National Geographic article from 1899, after which the spelling was kept by many agencies and entities because of the ethnic and linguistic pride of the English-speaking citizens of the American mainland.
  14. ^ Text of Ortega v. Lara, 202 U.S. 339, 342 (1906) is available from: Cornell  Findlaw  Justia  OpenJurist 
  15. ^ pr.gov (in Spanish) "La manufactura es el sector principal de la economía de Puerto Rico."
  16. ^ pr.gov (in Spanish) "Algunas de las industrias más destacadas dentro del sector de la manufactura son: las farmacéuticas, los textiles, los petroquímicos, las computadoras, la electrónica y las compañías dedicadas a la manufactura de instrumentos médicos y científicos, entre otros."
  17. ^ Torrech San Inocencio (2011; in Spanish) "Con los más de $1,500 millones anuales que recibimos en asistencia federal para alimentos podríamos desarrollar una industria alimentaria autosuficiente en Puerto Rico."
  18. ^ Millán Rodriguez (2013; in Spanish) "Los representantes del Pueblo en la Junta de Gobierno de la Autoridad de Energía Eléctrica denunciaron ayer que la propuesta del Gobernador para hacer cambios en la composición del organismo institucionaliza la intervención político partidista en la corporación pública y la convierte en una agencia del Ejecutivo.."
  19. ^ Vera Rosa (2013; in Spanish) "Aunque Puerto Rico mueve entre el sector público y privado $15 billones en el área de salud, las deficiencias en el sistema todavía no alcanzan un nivel de eficiencia óptimo."
  20. ^ Vera Rosado (2013; in Spanish) "Para mejorar la calidad de servicio, que se impacta principalmente por deficiencias administrativas y no por falta de dinero"
  21. ^ González (2012; in Spanish) " al analizarse la deuda pública de la Isla contra el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB), se ubicaría en una relación deuda/PIB de 68% aproximadamente."
  22. ^ Bauzá (2013; in Spanish) "La realidad de nuestra situación económica y fiscal es resultado de años de falta de acción. Al Gobierno le faltó creatividad, innovación y rapidez en la creación de un nuevo modelo económico que sustentara nuestra economía. Tras la eliminación de la Sección 936, debimos ser proactivos, y no lo fuimos."
  23. ^ Quintero (2013; in Spanish) "Los indicadores de una economía débil son muchos, y la economía en Puerto Rico está sumamente debilitada, según lo evidencian la tasa de desempleo (13.5%), los altos niveles de pobreza (41.7%), los altos niveles de quiebra y la pérdida poblacional."
  24. ^ Walsh (2013) "In each of the last six years, Puerto Rico sold hundreds of millions of dollars of new bonds just to meet payments on its older, outstanding bonds – a red flag. It also sold $2.5 billion worth of bonds to raise cash for its troubled pension system – a risky practice – and it sold still more long-term bonds to cover its yearly budget deficits."
  25. ^ PRGDB "Financial Information and Operating Data Report to 18 October 2013" p. 142
  26. ^ MRGI (2008) "Many female migrants leave their families behind due to the risk of illegal travel and the high cost of living in Puerto Rico."
  27. ^ FRBNY (2011) "...home values vary considerably across municipios: for the metro area overall, the median value of owner-occupied homes was estimated at $126,000 (based on data for 2007–09), but these medians ranged from $214,000 in Guaynabo to around $100,000 in some of the outlying municipios. The median value in the San Juan municipio was estimated at $170,000."
  28. ^ Santiago (2021) "Local detractors of the Jones Act for many years have unsuccessfully tried to have Puerto Rico excluded from the law's provisions"
  29. ^ JOC (2013) "Repealing or amending the Jones Act cabotage law might cut Puerto Rico shipping costs"
  30. ^ JOC (2013) "The GAO report said its interviews with shippers indicated they believed that opening the trade to non-U.S.-flag competition could lower costs."


  1. ^ "U.S. Territories - Developments in the Law". Harvard Law Review. 10 April 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2024.
  2. ^ "P. Rico Senate declares Spanish over English as first official language". Agencia EFE. San Juan, Puerto Rico. 4 September 2015. Archived from the original on 1 November 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
  3. ^ a b "Puerto Rico 2015-2019 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". US Census. Department of Commerce. 2019. Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  4. ^ "puertorriqueño". Diccionario de la Lengua Española por la Real Academia Española (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 January 2024.
  5. ^ "puertorro". Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española: Diccionario de Americanismos (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 January 2024.
  6. ^ a b "2020 Census Illuminates Racial and Ethnic Composition of the Country: Puerto Rico". United States Census. Archived from the original on 21 October 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  7. ^ a b c "Table 2. Resident Population for the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: 2020 Census" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 26 April 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 April 2021. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  8. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (PR)". International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Archived from the original on 20 November 2023. Retrieved 13 October 2023.
  9. ^ "Household Income for States: 2010 and 2011" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. September 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
  10. ^ Fuentes-Ramírez, Ricardo R. (2017). "Human Development Index Trends and Inequality in Puerto Rico 2010–2015". Ceteris Paribus: Journal of Socio-Economic Research. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  11. ^ "Quick Facts Puerto Rico: Population Estimates, July 1, 2023". United States Census Bureau. 1 July 2023. Archived from the original on 30 March 2021. Retrieved 15 March 2024.
  12. ^ "State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 24 February 2024.
  13. ^ "Geografía de Puerto Rico". Sistemas de Información Geográfica (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 February 2024.
  14. ^ Amaral, Patrícia & Ana Maria Carvalho (2014). Portuguese-Spanish Interfaces: Diachrony, synchrony, and contact. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 130. ISBN 978-90-272-5800-7.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g "CIA World Factbook – Puerto Rico". Archived from the original on 5 January 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
  16. ^ "7 fam 1120 acquisition of u.s. nationality in u.s. territories and possessions". U.S. Department of State Foreign Affairs Manual Volume 7- Consular Affairs. U.S. Department of State. 3 January 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  17. ^ Pueblo v. Tribunal Superior, 92 D.P.R. 596 (1965). Translation taken from the English text, 92 P.R.R. 580 (1965), pp. 588–89. See also López-Baralt Negrón, Pueblo v. Tribunal Superior: Español: Idioma del proceso judicial, 36, Revista Jurídica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico. 396 (1967), and Vientós-Gastón, Informe del Procurador General sobre el idioma, 36 Revista del Colegio de Abogados de PuertO Rico. (P.R.) 843 (1975).
  18. ^ "Puerto Rico". Archived from the original on 12 September 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  19. ^ Stacy Taus-Bolstad (1 September 2004). Puerto Ricans in America. Lerner Publications. pp. 7–. ISBN 978-0-8225-3953-7. OCLC 1245779085.
  20. ^ Caban, Pedro A. (2009). Constructing a Colonial People: Puerto Rico and the United States, 1898–1932. Westview Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7867-4817-4.
  21. ^ Santiago-Valles, Kelvin A. (1994). Subject People and Colonial Discourses: Economic Transformation and Social Disorder in Puerto Rico, 1898–1947. SUNY Press. p. ix. ISBN 978-0-7914-1589-4.
  22. ^ Lipski, John M. (2005). A History of Afro-Hispanic Language: Five Centuries, Five Continents. Cambridge University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-107-32037-6.
  23. ^ "Documenting a Puerto Rican Identity | In Search of a National Identity: Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth-Century Puerto Rico | Articles and Essays | Puerto Rico at the Dawn of the Modern Age: Nineteenth- and Early-Twentieth-Century Perspectives". Digital Collections, Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  24. ^ José Trías Monge. Puerto Rico: The Trials of the Oldest Colony in the World. New Haven, CT; London: Yale University Press, 1999. p. 4.
  25. ^ 8 U.S. Code § 1402 – Persons born in Puerto Rico on or after 11 April 1899 Archived 8 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine (1941) Retrieved: 14 January 2015.
  26. ^ Igartúa–de la Rosa v. United States (Igartúa III) Archived 16 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, 417 F.3d 145 (1st Cir. 2005) (en banc), GREGORIO IGARTÚA, ET AL., Plaintiffs, Appellants, v. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ET AL., Defendants, Appellees. No. 09-2186 Archived 5 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine (24 November 2010)
  27. ^ The trauma of Puerto Rico's 'Maria Generation' . Archived 24 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine Robin Ortiz. ABC News. 17 February 2019. Accessed 24 September 2019.
  28. ^ PUERTO RICO: Fiscal Relations with the Federal Government and Economic Trends during the Phaseout of the Possessions Tax Credit. Archived 26 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine General Accounting Office publication number GAO-06-541. US Gen. Acctg. Office, Washington, DC. 19 May 2006. Public Release: 23 June 2006. (Note: All residents of Puerto Rico pay federal taxes, with the exception of federal income taxes which only some residents of Puerto Rico must still pay).
  29. ^ "Puerto Rico's Political Status and the 2012 Plebiscite: Background and Key Questions" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. 25 June 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2016 – via fas.org.
  30. ^ "El Nuevo Día". Elnuevodia.com. 18 April 2017. Archived from the original on 27 August 2017. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
  31. ^ a b "Advanced economies". IMF. Archived from the original on 17 June 2019. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  32. ^ a b c "Manufactura" (in Spanish). Government of Puerto Rico. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  33. ^ Allatson, Paul (2007). Key Terms in Latino/a Cultural and Literary Studies. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishing. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-4051-0250-6.
  34. ^ Cayetano Coll y Toste, ed. (1972). "Taino Indigenous Peoples of the Caribbean". Clásicos de Puerto Rico (2nd ed.). Ediciones Latinoamericanas, S.A. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007.
  35. ^ Grose, Howard Benjamin (1910). H. B. Grose, Advance in the Antilles: the new era in Cuba and Porto Rico, Presbyterian Home Missions, 1910. Literature Dept., Presbyterian Home Missions. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  36. ^ Boricua. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Accessed 9 February 2022. Archived.
  37. ^ Borincano. Diccionario de la Real Academia Española. Accessed 9 February 2022.Archived.
  38. ^ Julian Granberry and Gary Vescelius. Languages of the Pre-Columbian Antilles. The University of Alabama Press. 2004. p.92. ISBN 978-0-8173-8191-2
  39. ^ Schechter, Patricia A. (2012). "¡Adelante Hermanas de la Raza!, Josefina Silva de Cintron and Puerto Rican Women's Feminismo. – The New York's World Fair: 1939–1940". Exploring the Decolonial Imaginary: Four Transnational Lives. New York: MacMillan. ISBN 978-1-137-01284-5. Note: The phase "The Island of Enchantment" has been traced back to a travel guide by that title that Theodore Roosevelt Jr. offered in House & Garden magazine in 1938.
  40. ^ "Historia de Puerto Rico". Proyectosalonhogar.com. Archived from the original on 30 April 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  41. ^ "Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain; December 10, 1898". The Avalon Project. Yale Law School. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  42. ^ "Crafting an Identity". History, Art & Archives. Office of the Historian and the Clerk of the House's Office of Art and Archives. Archived from the original on 19 August 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  43. ^ Pedro A. Malavet (2004). America's colony: the political and cultural conflict between the United States and Puerto Rico. NYU Press. pp. 43, 181 note 76. ISBN 978-0-8147-5680-5. Archived from the original on 8 February 2024. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  44. ^ To change the name of the island of Porto Rico to Puerto Rico, S.J. Res 36, 72nd Congress, enacted 1932. (47 Stat. 158)
  45. ^ Patricia Gherovici (2003). The Puerto Rican syndrome. Other Press, LLC. pp. 140–141. ISBN 978-1-892746-75-7. Archived from the original on 8 February 2024. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  46. ^ Historian, Office of the (1 January 2013). Hispanic Americans in Congress, 1822–2012. Government Printing Office. ISBN 978-0-16-092068-4. Archived from the original on 8 February 2024. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  47. ^ Secretary's, Puerto Rico; Office, Puerto Rico Secretary's (1 January 1903). Register of Porto Rico. Office of the Secretary.
  48. ^ Van Deusen, Richard James; Van Deusen, Elizabeth Kneipple (1931). Porto Rico: A Caribbean Isle. Henry Holt. Archived from the original on 8 February 2024. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  49. ^ Sciences, New York Academy of (1922). Scientific survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences.
  50. ^ Carmelo Rosario Natal. Ponce En Su Historia Moderna: 1945–2002. Secretaría de Cultura y Turismo. Gobierno Municipal de Ponce. Ponce, Puerto Rico. 2003. p. 141.
  51. ^ "How Europeans Brought Sickness to the New World". www.sciencemag.org. 3 June 2015.
  52. ^ "Teoría, Crítica e Historia: La abolición de la esclavitud y el mundo hispano". Ensayistas.
  53. ^ Roselló, Pedro Luis Perea (April–June 1963). Santiago, Maria García; Vega, Pedro Malavey; González, José M. Novoa; Goyco, Edwin Toro (eds.). "Res communes omnium". Doctrina. Revista de Derecho Puertorriqueño. Printed in Spain: Imprenta vda. de Daniel Cochs—Cros. 23.—Barcelona (in Spanish). 2 (8). Ponce, Puerto Rico: Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico School of Law: 7–24. ISSN 0034-7930.
  54. ^ "Members Hear Petitioners Speak up for Independence, Statehood, Free Association". General Assembly of the United Nations. 15 June 2009. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  55. ^ Ley Numero 283 del 28 de diciembre de 2011. Archived 12 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico. 28 December 2011. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  56. ^ Fortuño calls for status vote next August. Archived 24 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine John Marino. Caribbean Business. Released on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  57. ^ casiano communications (4 October 2011). "Fortuño calls for status, legislative reform votes on 12 August 2012". Caribbeanbusinesspr.com. Archived from the original on 24 November 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  58. ^ "Puerto Rico votes on whether to change relationship with US, elects governor and legislators". Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  59. ^ "H.R. 5278, Puerto Rico Oversight, Management and Economic Stability Act of 2016 (PROMESA)". Policy.house.gov. 6 June 2016. Archived from the original on 19 August 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  60. ^ "2020 Puerto Rican status referendum". elecciones2020.ceepur.org. 5 November 2020. Archived from the original on 3 November 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  61. ^ Cortés Zavala; María Teresa & José Alfredo Uribe Salas (2014). "Ciencia y economía del guano: La isla mona en puerto rico, siglo XIX". Memorias: Revista Digital de Historia y Arqueología Desde el Caribe. 11 (22): 81–106. doi:10.14482/memor.22.5948. ISSN 1794-8886.
  62. ^ Schärer-Umpierre, Michelle T.; et al. (2014). "Marine Managed Areas and Associated Fisheries in the US Caribbean". Marine Managed Areas and Fisheries. Advances in Marine Biology. 69: 140. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-800214-8.00004-9. ISBN 978-0-12-800214-8. PMID 25358299. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  63. ^ Helmer, Etienne (2011). "La ciudad contemporanea, una polis sin politica?". Boletin Cientifico Sapiens Research. 1 (2): 88.
  64. ^ Esterrich, Carmelo (2009). "Edenes insostenibles: El campo de la ciudad en la intentona cultural de los cincuenta". CENTRO: Journal of the Center for Puerto Rican Studies. 21 (1): 180.
  65. ^ "Bathymetric Data Viewer". maps.ngdc.noaa.gov. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  66. ^ a b "The World Factbook – Puerto Rico#Geography". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 5 January 2021. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  67. ^ "Welcome to Puerto Rico!". topuertorico.org. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2007.
  68. ^ "The World Factbook – Jamaica". CIA. Archived from the original on 11 January 2021. Retrieved 24 April 2008.
  69. ^ "The World Factbook – Cuba". CIA. Archived from the original on 2 December 2021. Retrieved 24 April 2008.
  70. ^ "Caribbean National Forest – El Yunque Trail # 15". GORP.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2010. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  71. ^ "Los Lagos de Puerto Rico". Archived from the original on 25 December 2004. Retrieved 29 June 2007. (archived from on 29 June 2007). (in Spanish)
  72. ^ Andrzej Pisera; Michael Martínez; Hernan Santos (May 2006). "Late Cretaceous Siliceous Sponges From El Rayo Formation, Puerto Rico". Journal of Paleontology. Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2008.
  73. ^ "Earthquake History of Puerto Rico". U.S. Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 14 July 2007. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
  74. ^ Morning Update for Puerto Rico - January 7, 2020: On Jan. 7, a magnitude 6.4 earthquake struck the region at 4:24 am local time (08:24:26 UTC). Significant damage is possible. Over the past several weeks, hundreds of small earthquakes have occurred in the Puerto Rico region, beginning in earnest with a M 4.7 earthquake late on December 28 and a M 5.0 event a few hours. Puerto Rico Earthquakes. 7 January 2020. Accessed 9 February 2022. Archived.
  75. ^ Puerto Rico hit by largest earthquake in 100 years. Cheryl Magness. Reporter. 8 January 2020. Accessed 9 February 2022. Archived.
  76. ^ 6.4-magnitude quake strikes Puerto Rico, killing at least 1 amid heavy seismic activity: "We've never been exposed to this kind of emergency in 102 years," Gov. Wanda Vázquez said as the island grapples with ongoing aftershocks and assesses the damage. Nicole Acevedo and Ben Kesslen. NBC News. 7 January 2020. Accessed 7 February 2022. Archived.
  77. ^ Analyst says earthquakes could cost Puerto Rico's economy up to $3.1 billion. Kate Trafecante. CNN. 7 January 2020. Accessed 9 February 2022. Archived.
  78. ^ a b Uri ten Brink. "Explorations: Puerto Rico Trench 2003 – Cruise Summary and Results". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
  79. ^ "NOAA Ocean Explorer: Puerto Rico Trench". Oceanexplorer.noaa.gov. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  80. ^ Mondziel, Steven A. (2007). "Morphology, Structure, and Tectonic Evolution of the Mona Canyon, Puerto Rico" (PDF). uncg.edu. University of North Carolina Wilmington. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 August 2023. Retrieved 20 August 2023 – via Journal of Marine Geology.
  81. ^ Stillman, Dan (7 June 2023). "Historic heat is roasting Puerto Rico, where it feels like 125 degrees". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 17 October 2023. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
  82. ^ "NOWData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 9 October 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  83. ^ Daly, Christopher; Helmer, Eileen H.; Quiñonez, Maya (2003). "Mapping the Climate of Puerto Rico, Vieques and Culebra". International Journal of Climatology. 23 (11): 1359–81. Bibcode:2003IJCli..23.1359D. doi:10.1002/joc.937.
  84. ^ Rodgers, Edward B.; Adler, Robert F.; Pierce, Harold F. (November 2001). "Contribution of Tropical Cyclones to the North Atlantic Climatological Rainfall as Observed from Satellites". Journal of Applied Meteorology. 40 (11): 1785–1800. Bibcode:2001JApMe..40.1785R. doi:10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<1785:COTCTT>2.0.CO;2.
  85. ^ Aurelio Mercado and Harry Justiniano. Coastal Hazards of Puerto Rico. Archived 6 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 23 January 2008.
  86. ^ "A look at the damage from Hurricane Irma in the Caribbean". ABC News. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  87. ^ "Jose remains dangerous Category 4 hurricane". KETV. 9 September 2017. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  88. ^ Berg, Robbie (20 September 2017). "Hurricane Maria". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on 21 September 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  89. ^ "Hurricane Maria cuts all electricity as it crushes Puerto Rico". NBC News. 21 September 2017. Archived from the original on 21 September 2017. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  90. ^ "The entire island of Puerto Rico may be without electricity for months". 23 September 2017. Archived from the original on 28 September 2017. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
  91. ^ "Pittsburgh Army Corps teams in Puerto Rico, Florida ahead of Dorian's mainland arrival | TribLIVE.com". triblive.com. 28 August 2019. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  92. ^ "Puerto Rico is in Dorian's bull's-eye: Three things to know as island braces for the storm". NBC News. 28 August 2019. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  93. ^ Barbara Campbell, Paolo Ziaclita (24 September 2019). "Tropical Storm Karen's Squalls Hit Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands". NPR. Archived from the original on 1 February 2021. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  94. ^ "Puerto Rico Territory Energy Profile". U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  95. ^ World Bank (2023). "Climate Change Knowledge Portal".
  96. ^ Ezcurra, Paula; Rivera-Collazo, Isabel C. (1 July 2018). "An assessment of the impacts of climate change on Puerto Rico's Cultural Heritage with a case study on sea-level rise". Journal of Cultural Heritage. 32: 198–209. doi:10.1016/j.culher.2018.01.016. ISSN 1296-2074. S2CID 139358281 – via Science Direct.
  97. ^ PCCC 2022, p. 106.
  98. ^ PCCC 2022, p. 104.
  99. ^ Gobierno de Puerto Rico. "Puerto Rico Revolving Fund" (PDF). Retrieved 2 May 2023.
  100. ^ Dinerstein, Eric; et al. (2017). "An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm". BioScience. 67 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix014. ISSN 0006-3568. PMC 5451287. PMID 28608869.
  101. ^ "Island Directory". Islands.unep.ch. Archived from the original on 7 September 2006. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  102. ^ "Coquí in the Rainforest". Discover Puerto Rico. Archived from the original on 30 March 2023. Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  103. ^ "Iguaca Aviary Techniques used in the Puerto Rican Parrot Recovery Program" (PDF). US Fish & Wildlife Services. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 December 2022. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  104. ^ "View of News of the Rio Abajo Aviary for Puerto Rican Parrot". Journal of Caribbean Ornithology. 3 (3): 4. 18 December 1990. Archived from the original on 20 August 2023. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  105. ^ Ewel, J.L. & J.L. Whitmore. 1973. The ecological life zones of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. USDA For. Serv. Res. Pap. ITF-18.
  106. ^ Ewel, J. J.; Whitmore, J. L. (1973). The Ecological Life Zones of Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands (PDF). USDA Forest Service Institute of Tropical Forestry. Forest Service Research Paper ITF-18. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 August 2023. Retrieved 20 August 2023.
  107. ^ Alberts, Allison; Lemm, Jeffrey; Grant, Tandora; Jackintell, Lori (2004), "Testing the Utility of Headstarting as a Conservation Strategy for West Indian Iguanas", Iguanas: Biology and Conservation, University of California Press, p. 210, ISBN 978-0-520-23854-1
  108. ^ Soler-Figueroa, Brenda María; Otero, Ernesto (1 January 2015). "The Influence of Rain Regimes and Nutrient Loading on the Abundance of Two Dinoflagellate Species in a Tropical Bioluminescent Bay, Bahía Fosforescente, La Parguera, Puerto Rico". Estuaries and Coasts. 38 (1): 84–92. Bibcode:2015EstCo..38...84S. doi:10.1007/s12237-014-9827-0. ISSN 1559-2731. S2CID 85305359.
  109. ^ "Bioluminescent Bay, Puerto Rico - Unique Places around the World". WorldAtlas. Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  110. ^ Yancey-Bragg, N'dea. "After Hurricane Maria, Puerto Rico's rare bioluminescent bays may go dark". USA TODAY. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  111. ^ "Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Article I, Section 2" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 December 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  112. ^ "U.S. Department of State. Dependencies and Areas of Special Sovereignty". State.gov. Archived from the original on 21 June 2022. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  113. ^ a b "U.S. Department of State. Foreign Affairs Manual: Volume 7 – Consular Affairs (7 FAM 1120), 'Acquisition of U.S. Nationality in U.S. Territories and Possessions', pp. 1–3". Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  114. ^ Rules of the House of Representatives. Rule III Archived 5 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  115. ^ "Help America Vote Act (HAVA) 2018 ELECTION SECURITY GRANT" (PDF). Puerto Rico State Elections Commission. 25 July 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 July 2021. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  116. ^ "2008 Presidential Primary Dates and Candidates Filling Datelines for Ballot Access" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 October 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  117. ^ a b "Consulados. Link to Puerto Rico". Archived from the original on 11 April 2004. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
  118. ^ "LinktoPR.com – Fundación de los Pueblos". Archived from the original on 21 April 2004. Retrieved 21 April 2004.
  119. ^ "Special committee on decolonization approves text calling on United States to expedite Puerto Rican self-determination process" (Press release). Department of Public Information, United Nations General Assembly. 13 June 2006. Archived from the original on 9 April 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2007.
  120. ^ Keith Bea (25 May 2005). "Political Status of Puerto Rico: Background, Options, and Issues in the 109th Congress" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 September 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2007.
  121. ^ U.S. Const. art. IV, § 3, cl. 2 ("The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United States ...").
  122. ^ Downes v. Bidwell, 182 U.S. 244, 261 (1901), commenting on an earlier Supreme Court decision, Loughborough v. Blake, 18 U.S. (5 Wheat.) 317 (1820); Rasmussen v. United States, 197 U.S. 516, 529–530, 536 (1905)(concurring opinions of Justices Harlan and Brown), that once the Constitution has been extended to an area, its coverage is irrevocable; Boumediene v. Bush – That where the Constitution has been once formally extended by Congress to territories, neither Congress nor the territorial legislature can enact laws inconsistent therewith. The Constitution grants Congress and the President the power to acquire, dispose of, and govern territory, not the power to decide when and where its terms apply.
  123. ^ The Louisiana Purchase and American Expansion: 1803–1898. By Sanford Levinson and Bartholomew H. Sparrow. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 2005. pp. 166, 178. "U.S. citizenship was extended to residents of Puerto Rico by virtue of the Jones Act, chap. 190, 39 Stat. 951 (1971)(codified at 48 U.S.C. § 731 (1987)")
  124. ^ "Constitutional Topic: Citizenship". U.S. Constitution Online. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
  125. ^ "Puerto Ricans pay federal commodity taxes". Stanford.wellsphere.com. Archived from the original on 1 April 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  126. ^ "Internal Revenue Service. ', Topic 903 – Federal Employment Tax in Puerto Rico'". Irs.gov. 18 December 2009. Archived from the original on 3 July 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  127. ^ a b "Reuters, 'Puerto Rico hopes to gain from U.S. healthcare reform', 24 September 2009". Reuters. 24 September 2009. Archived from the original on 30 November 2020. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  128. ^ Schaefer, Brett. "The Heritage Foundation, 11 March 2009. "D.C. Voting Rights: No Representation? No Taxation!", By Robert A. Book, PhD". Heritage.org. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
  129. ^ "Puerto Rico Manufacturers Association, CEO Summit, Federal and Local Incentives: Where we are, Where We Want to be. Amaya Iraolagoitia, Partner, Tax Dept" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  130. ^ a b "Joint Committee on Taxation. An Overview of the Special Tax Rules Related to Puerto Rico and an Analysis of the Tax and Economic Policy Implications of Recent Legislative Options" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  131. ^ Members of the military must pay federal income tax
  132. ^ "Table 5. Internal Revenue Gross Collections, by Type of Tax and State, Fiscal year 2009" (XLS). Internal Revenue Service. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  133. ^ Puerto Rico hopes to gain from U.S. healthcare reform. Archived 16 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine Reuters. 24 September 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  134. ^ "News & Media". PRFAA. 6 July 2009. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  135. ^ a b Martínez Torres, Juez (Judge) (20 March 2015). "Opinión del Tribunal emitida por el Juez Asociado señor Martínez Torres" (PDF). Legal Document. El Tribunal Supremo de Puerto Rico. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 January 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
  136. ^ "Colombia y Puerto Rico se dan la mano". El Nuevo Día (in Spanish). 20 July 2013. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
  137. ^ "Relaciones comerciales entre Colombia y Puerto Rico" (in Spanish). Universidad ICESI. 23 July 2013. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
  138. ^ Wines, Michael (26 July 2019). "She's Puerto Rico's Only Link to Washington. She Could Be Its Future Governor". New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. She noted that her campaign to become resident commissioner garnered more votes in 2016 than any other candidate for office in the unincorporated territory.
  139. ^ "Mari Carmen Aponte". State.gov. Archived from the original on 21 May 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  140. ^ "After Closing of Navy Base, Hard Times in Puerto Rico". The New York Times. 3 April 2005. Archived from the original on 3 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
  141. ^ OSD, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (DIOR); "Atlas/Data Abstract for the United States and Selected Areas – Fiscal Year 1997;" Department of Defense; 1998. Note: The count of 25 military installations included the branch component of the Roosevelt Roads Naval facility on the island of Vieques, as distinct from the Roosevelt Roads Naval station in Cieba
  142. ^ a b Meléndez, Edwin; Meléndez, Edgardo; Colonial Dilemma; South End Press; Boston; 1993
  143. ^ Maryland General Assembly (8 April 1997). "Participation of Hispanics in the American Revolution". SJR2. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  144. ^ Danny Nieves. "Special Announcements". Valerosos.com. Archived from the original on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  145. ^ Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, Reserve Affairs; "Official Guard and Reserve Manpower Strengths and Statistics – Summary End Fiscal Year 1996;" 1996
  146. ^ Hunter, Britt. "Research Guides: Commonwealth Caribbean Law Research Guide: Puerto Rico". guides.law.fsu.edu. Archived from the original on 19 January 2024. Retrieved 19 January 2024.
  147. ^ Wilson, Steven H. (2021). The U.S. Justice System An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-305-7.
  148. ^ "Table 5". FBI.
  149. ^ Chalabi, Mona (22 July 2012). "Gun homicides and gun ownership listed by country". The Guardian.
  150. ^ "Latin American Herald Tribune – 80% of Puerto Rico Murders Called Drug-Related". Laht.com. Archived from the original on 23 November 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  151. ^ Navarro, Mireya (31 July 1994). "After Carjacking Surge, Puerto Rico Is Wary Behind the Wheel". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  152. ^ Rico, Metro Puerto (8 February 2018). "Sacan familia de auto para hacer carjacking en Guaynabo". Metro (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  153. ^ "Video: Carjacking en centro comercial de Guaynabo". Telemundo PR (in Spanish). 9 March 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  154. ^ Nicole Candelaria (26 March 2018). "Investigan carjacking en Guaynabo". El Vocero de Puerto Rico (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  155. ^ "Mujer víctima de carjacking a punta de pistola en Guaynabo". Primera Hora (in Spanish). 19 January 2019. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  156. ^ "Arrests of Elvin Manuel Otero Tarzia, Sebastian Angelo Saldana, Kevin Rivera Ruiz, and a Male Juvenile". FBI. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  157. ^ "Alarmante la cifra de "carjackings" en la Isla". UNO Radio Group. Redacción Digital. 14 March 2019. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  158. ^ "GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$) - Puerto Rico | Data". data.worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 12 December 2021. Retrieved 12 December 2021.
  159. ^ "PUERTO RICO FACT SHEET" (PDF). Gdb-pur.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  160. ^ "Puerto Rico's tourism industry continues to expand". Business Destinations. Archived from the original on 28 April 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
  161. ^ a b c d e
  162. ^ Alan Heston, Robert Summers and Bettina Aten, Penn World Table Version 7.1, Center for International Comparisons of Production, Income and Prices at the University of Pennsylvania, July 2012. Accessed on 19 August 2012. Note: GDP per capita data are "PPP Converted GDP Per Capita, average GEKS-CPDW, at current prices (in I$)", labeled as variable "cgdp2".
  163. ^ Torrcech San Inocencio, Rafael (7 December 2011). "La autosuficiencia alimentaria". El Nuevo Día (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  164. ^ Millán Rodríguez, Yamilet (4 April 2013). "Denuncian politización de Junta AEE". El Vocero (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  165. ^ a b Vera Rosado, Ileanexis (17 May 2013). "Ineficiencia arropa a los recursos económicos de salud". El Vocero (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  166. ^ González, Jenisabel (13 June 2012). "Debemos más de lo que producimos". El Nuevo Día (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  167. ^ Bauzá, Nydia (2 December 2013). "García Padilla insiste en que heredó un país "en cantos"". El Nuevo Día (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
  168. ^ World Bank Indicators; World Bank. "World Bank Indicators 2012: Puerto Rico". Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
  169. ^ Schwab, Klaus (2013). "The Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014" (PDF). World Economic Forum. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  170. ^ Quintero, Laura (14 September 2013). "Las estadísticas hablan: Puerto Rico camino a ser el "Detroit del Caribe"". NotiCel (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  171. ^ "Nearly two years after Hurricane Maria devastation, Puerto Rico welcomes record number of tourists". USA Today. 2 April 2019. Archived from the original on 27 November 2019. Retrieved 27 November 2019. Brief power outages still hit occasionally as the government prepares to privatize an aging and poorly maintained grid that was destroyed by the hurricane, and water shortages have hit parts of Puerto Rico's north coast since 30 percent of the island is experiencing a moderate drought that is affecting 791,000 of its 3.2 million inhabitants.
  172. ^ "Nearly two years after Hurricane Maria devastation, Puerto Rico welcomes record number of tourists". ViaHero. 2 April 2019. Archived from the original on 27 November 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2019. Almost all of Puerto Rico's hotels are open for business. The beaches are ready for swimming and sunbathing, and even remote places to visit like El Yunque rainforest are receiving visitors.
  173. ^ "Culture Is Central in Puerto Rico's New Marketing Campaign". Skift. 24 April 2019. Archived from the original on 27 November 2019. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
  174. ^ Nick Brown (18 January 2017). "Puerto Rico oversight board favors more time for restructuring talks". The Fiscal Times. Reuters. Archived from the original on 17 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
  175. ^ a b "Puerto Rico Gets More Time". Star Herald. Scottsbluff, ME. Associated Press. 29 January 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.[permanent dead link]
  176. ^ Platt, Eric (19 January 2017). "New Puerto Rico governor seeks amicable debt crisis resolution". Financial Times. New York. Archived from the original on 10 December 2022. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  177. ^ a b Watson, Dan (17 January 2017). "Secretary Lew Sends Letter to 115th Congress on Puerto Rico". Department of the Treasury. Archived from the original on 17 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
  178. ^ Nick Brown (18 January 2017). "Puerto Rico oversight board favors more time for restructuring talks". The Fiscal Times. Reuters. Archived from the original on 17 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017. The bipartisan, seven-member oversight board was created under the federal Puerto Rico rescue law known as PROMESA, passed by the U.S. Congress last year. It is charged with helping the island manage its finances and navigate its way out of the economic jam, including by negotiating restructuring deals with creditors.
  179. ^ "Economistas se Oponen a las Reformas para 'estimular la economía'". El Nuevo Día. 20 February 2017.
  180. ^ Bases, Daniel (4 August 2017). "Puerto Rico to furlough workers, proposes pension plan reform". Cnbc.com. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  181. ^ Castrodad, José (7 April 2014). "La Estadidad es una, única, uniforme e irreversible". El Vocero. Archived from the original on 9 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  182. ^ Walsh, Mary (7 October 2013). "Worsening Debt Crisis Threatens Puerto Rico". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
  183. ^ "¿Cómo Puerto Rico llegó a tener crédito chatarra?". El Nuevo Día (in Spanish). 4 February 2014. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  184. ^ "Financial Information and Operating Data Report to October 18, 2013" (PDF). Puerto Rico Government Development Bank. 18 October 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 April 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  185. ^ "San Juan 2023 o la decadencia de un País". Centro Para Una Nueva Economía. Center for a New Economy. 31 January 2013. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
  186. ^ "SERVICIO DE LA DEUDA" (PDF). ".pr.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  187. ^ "Reporte General sobre Deuda Pública" (PDF). ".pr.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  188. ^ Walsh, Mary Williams (2 July 2017). "Puerto Rico's Power Authority Effectively Files for Bankruptcy". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 July 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  189. ^ "PROCESO PRESUPUESTARIO" (PDF). 2.pr.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  190. ^ a b "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Puerto Rico: Dominicans". Minority Rights Group International. 2008. Archived from the original on 17 September 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  191. ^ "Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico". Military Installations. Department of Defense. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
  192. ^ "Puerto Rico's Cost of Living Skyrockets". Huffingtonpost.com. 29 September 2013. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  193. ^ Alvarez, Lizette (8 February 2014). "Economy and Crime Spur New Puerto Rican Exodus". The New York Times.
  194. ^ "Home – El Nuevo Día". Elnuevodia.com. 31 August 2013. Archived from the original on 8 February 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  195. ^ "MIDA concluye alto costo de vida es la preocupación mayor del boricua". Primerahora.com. 13 February 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  196. ^ Dougherty, Conor (14 August 2007). "Puerto Rico's Economic Slump Weighs Hard on Consumers". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  197. ^ Coto, Danica (29 September 2013). "Life in Puerto Rico becomes costlier amid crisis". Nbclatino.com. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  198. ^ "Puerto Rico 2012–2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". US Census. Department of Commerce. 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  199. ^ "Puerto Rico". Federal Reserve Bank of New York. August 2011. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  200. ^ a b Gutierrez, Elías. "Impact of the Coastwise Trade Laws on the Transportation System of the United States of America" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  201. ^ Santiago, Jaime (29 November 2012). "Jones Act requirement comes under new light". Caribbean Business. Archived from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  202. ^ "R. Conc. del S. 21" (Microsoft Word) (in Spanish). Puerto Rico Office of Legislative Services. 6 May 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  203. ^ "Senado aprueba proyecto para pedir trato preferencial en leyes de cabotaje". NotiCel (in Spanish). 5 June 2013. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  204. ^ a b c "GAO's Jones Act Report Is Inconclusive". The Journal of Commerce. 20 March 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.[permanent dead link]
  205. ^ a b "GAO-13-260, Puerto Rico: Characteristics of the Island's Maritime Trade and Potential Effects of Modifying the Jones Act" (PDF). United States Government Accountability Office. March 2013.
  206. ^ Reeve & Associates; Estudios Técnicos, Inc. (June 2018). Impact of the U.S. Jones Act on Puerto Rico (PDF) (Report). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 January 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  207. ^ a b "Aeropuertos Internacionales y Regionales (Spanish)". Puerto Rico Ports Authority. Archived from the original on 7 October 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  208. ^ "About the Project – Overview". Port of the Americas Authority. Retrieved 28 July 2008.
  209. ^ "Ley de la Autoridad de Energía Eléctrica de Puerto Rico" (PDF). Presupuesto.gobierno.pr. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  210. ^ Pagán, José Karlo (18 May 2021). "Empleados de la AEE se manifiestan contra LUMA en el Tribunal federal y en la sede de la Junta" [AEE Employees Protest Against LUMA at the Federal Courthouse and Fiscal Oversight Management Board Headquarters]. Primera Hora (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 10 June 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  211. ^ Rivera Clemente, Yaritza (4 June 2021). "Se organizan más protestas para exigir la salida de LUMA" [More Protests Are Organized to Demand LUMA's Departure]. El Vocero (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 10 June 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  212. ^ "Inicio - Acueductospr". acueductospr.com. Archived from the original on 17 May 2021. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  213. ^ Asamblea Legislativa de Puerto Rico (2 October 2020). "Ley de Acueductos y Alcantarillados de Puerto Rico" (PDF). Biblioteca Virtual del Gobierno de Puerto Rico. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  214. ^ "Puerto Rico profile", BBC News, 23 May 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
  215. ^ "Communications: Puerto Rico", World Factbook, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 9 December 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
  216. ^ "Amateur Call Sign Systems". Federal Communications Commission. 28 September 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  217. ^ "Ley de Vehículos y Tránsito de Puerto Rico del 2000". www.lexjuris.com. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  218. ^ Murphy, Paul P.; Krupa, Michelle (27 September 2017). "Ham radio operators are saving Puerto Rico one transmission at a time". CNN. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  219. ^ "Population History, 1765–2010". Welcome to Puerto Rico!. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  220. ^ Bureau, US Census. "Puerto Rico Population Declined 11.8% From 2010 to 2020". Census.gov. Archived from the original on 1 December 2021. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  221. ^ "Puerto Rico Population Declined 11.8% from 2010 to 2020". Archived from the original on 1 December 2021. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  222. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (2020). "Profile of general population and housing characteristics". Decennial Census, DEC Demographic Profile, Table DP1, 2020 (data table). Archived from the original on 4 October 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  223. ^ "Wall Street eyes PR population loss". Caribbean Business. 14 December 2012. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
  224. ^ Cheatham, Amelia; Roy, Diana (29 September 2022). "Puerto Rico: A U.S. Territory in Crisis". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 3 November 2023. Retrieved 27 March 2023.
  225. ^ Taeuber, Irene B. (1943). General Censuses and Vital Statistics in the Americas. United States Bureau of the Census. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-87917-036-3. Archived from the original on 24 March 2023. Retrieved 24 March 2023.
  226. ^ Van Middeldyk, R. A (1975). "Part 4". The History of Puerto Rico. Arno Press. ISBN 978-0-405-06241-4. Archived from the original on 7 May 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2008.
  227. ^ "Puerto Rico". Kalgoorlie Western Argus (WA : 1896 - 1916). 28 April 1898. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  228. ^ "La Comunidad » Documentales Gratis » Un Estudio del Genoma Taino y Guanche. ADN o DNA. Primera parte". 6 February 2010. Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  229. ^ Martínez-Cruzado, J. C.; Toro-Labrador, G.; Ho-Fung, V.; Estévez-Montero, M. A.; Lobaina-Manzanet, A.; Padovani-Claudio, D. A.; Sánchez-Cruz, H.; Ortiz-Bermúdez, P.; Sánchez-Crespo, A. (2001). "Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals substantial Native American ancestry in Puerto Rico". Human Biology. 73 (4): 491–511. doi:10.1353/hub.2001.0056. PMID 11512677. S2CID 29125467.
  230. ^ Madrigal, Lorena (2006). Human biology of Afro-Caribbean populations. Cambridge University Press, 2006. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-521-81931-2. Archived from the original on 11 January 2024. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  231. ^ Bonilla; et al. (2004). "Ancestral proportions and their association with skin pigmentation and bone mineral density in Puerto Rican women from New York City". Hum Genet. 115 (1): 57–58. doi:10.1007/s00439-004-1125-7. PMID 15118905. S2CID 13708800.
  232. ^ Martinez-Cruzado; et al. (2005). "Reconstructing the population history of Puerto Rico by means of mtDNA phylogeographic analysis". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 128 (1): 131–55. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20108. PMID 15693025.
  233. ^ "Your Regional Ancestry: Reference Populations". The Genographic Project. Archived from the original on 20 July 2014.
  234. ^ Tang, Hua; Choudhry, Shweta; Mei, Rui; Morgan, Martin; Rodríguez-Clintron, William; González Burchard, Esteban; Risch, Neil (1 August 2007). "Recent Genetic Selection in the Ancestral Admixture of Puerto Ricans". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 81 (3): 626–633. doi:10.1086/520769. PMC 1950843. PMID 17701908.
  235. ^ Via, Mark; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Roth, Lindsey; Fejerman, Laura; Galander, Joshua; Choudhry, Shweta; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Viera-Vera, Jorge; Oleksyk, Taras K.; Beckman, Kenneth; Ziv, Elad; Risch, Neil; González Burchard, Esteban; Nartínez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos (2011). "History Shaped the Geographic Distribution of Genomic Admixture on the Island of Puerto Rico". PLOS ONE. 6 (1): e16513. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...616513V. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016513. PMC 3031579. PMID 21304981.
  236. ^ a b "Demography – Puerto Rico". Pew Research. Pew Research, DC. January 2017. Archived from the original on 11 May 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
  237. ^ "The World Factbook: Central America: Puerto Rico". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 5 January 2021. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  238. ^ "The Other Border: Puerto Rico's Seas". Latino USA. 28 March 2014. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  239. ^ "Portadilla de Revista" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  240. ^ PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION IN PUERTO RICO Archived 19 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine Universe: Foreign-born population in Puerto Rico excluding population born at sea. 2010–2014 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates
  241. ^ James Bargent (27 March 2017). "Dominican People Smugglers Trafficked Cubans to Puerto Rico". Archived from the original on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  242. ^ "Puerto Rico's population swap: The middle class for millionaires". BBC. 5 May 2015. Archived from the original on 23 June 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
  243. ^ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder – Results". Archived from the original on 12 February 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  244. ^ "Economy and Crime Spur New Puerto Rican Exodus". The New York Times. 9 February 2014. Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  245. ^ Peña, Jessica; Lowe, Ricardo Henrique Jr. (23 September 2023). "Eight Hispanic Groups Each Had a Million or More Population in 2020". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 11 July 2024.
  246. ^ "QuickFacts Puerto Rico". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 30 March 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  247. ^ "Official Language", Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language, Ed. Tom McArthur, Oxford University Press, 1998.
  248. ^ Pueblo v. Tribunal Superior, 92 D.P.R. 596 (1965). Translation taken from the English text, 92 P.R.R. 580 (1965), pp. 588–89. See also LOPEZ-BARALT NEGRON, "Pueblo v. Tribunal Superior: Espanol: Idioma del proceso judicial", 36 Revista Juridica de la Universidad de Puerto Rico. 396 (1967), and VIENTOS-GASTON, "Informe del Procurador General sobre el idioma", 36 Rev. Col. Ab. (P.R.) 843 (1975).
  249. ^ The Status of Languages in Puerto Rico. Muniz-Arguelles, Luis. University of Puerto Rico. c. 1988. Page 466. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  250. ^ "U.S. Census Annual Population Estimates 2007". Factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on 24 May 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  251. ^ Puerto Rico Governor Luis Fortuño Proposes Plan For Island's Public Schools To Teach In English Instead Of Spanish. Archived 31 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine Danica Coto. Huffington Latino Voices. 05/08/12 (8 May 2012). Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  252. ^ "Language Education Policy in Puerto Rico". Language Education Policy Studies. International Association for Language Education Policy Studies. 2013. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  253. ^ "Key findings about Puerto Rico". 29 March 2017. Archived from the original on 27 March 2023. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  254. ^ "Religion in Latin America". 13 November 2014. Archived from the original on 30 March 2022. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  255. ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Porto Rico" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  256. ^ Puerto Rico. Office of Historian (1949). Tesauro de datos historicos: indice compendioso de la literatura histórica de Puerto Rico, incluyendo algunos datos inéditos, periodísticos y cartográficos (in Spanish). Impr. del Gobierno de Puerto Rico. p. 306. Archived from the original on 11 January 2024. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  257. ^ "Sobre Nosotros". Episcopalpr.org. Archived from the original on 17 March 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  258. ^ Luis Fortuño Janeiro. Album Histórico de Ponce (1692–1963). Page 165. Ponce, Puerto Rico: Imprenta Fortuño. 1963.
  259. ^ "La presencia Germanica en Puerto Rico". Preb.com. Archived from the original on 17 July 2018. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  260. ^ "Protestants in Puerto Rico". english.turkcebilgi.com. Retrieved 21 April 2013.[permanent dead link]
  261. ^ Associated Press (12 March 2014). "Catholic Church and Puerto Rico officials at odds in widening sex abuse investigation". FOX News. Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  262. ^ "Puerto Rico People and Society". CIA Library. CIA. 2015. Archived from the original on 5 January 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2017. Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant and other 15%
  263. ^ LÓPEZ, Gustavo (15 September 2015). "Hispanics of Puerto Rican Origin in the United States, 2013". Pew Research. Pew Research Center, DC. Archived from the original on 10 October 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2017. Puerto Ricans in this statistical profile are people who self-identified as Hispanics of Puerto Rican origin; this means either they themselves were born in Puerto Rico1 or they were born in the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia or elsewhere, but trace their family ancestry to Puerto Rico.
  264. ^ "Religion in Latin America". Pew Research. Pew Research Center. 13 November 2014. Archived from the original on 30 March 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  265. ^ "Orthodox Church PR". www.orthodoxchurchpr.org. Archived from the original on 7 November 2020. Retrieved 1 November 2020.
  266. ^ PUERTO RICO WELCOMES FIRST-EVER EASTERN CATHOLIC PARISH Archived 6 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine Martin Barillas. As published in Horizons, 10 September 2017. Accessed 1 November 2020.
  267. ^ "Welcome". Parish.orthodoxtheologicalinstitute.org. Archived from the original on 4 March 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
  268. ^ "Latin American issues Vol. 3". Webpub.allegheny.edu. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  269. ^ Puerto Rican Indigenous Communities Seek Recognition, Return of Their Ancestral Lands: The Jíbaro and Taíno indigenous communities are not recognized by the Puerto Rican government. But two organizations dedicated to preserving their respective history and traditions are working to gain recognition as indigenous groups, as well as unrestricted access to their ancestral lands. Archived 23 October 2020 at the Wayback Machine Coraly Cruz Mejias. Global Press Journal. Washington, DC. 14 October 2019. Accessed 23 October 2020.
  270. ^ Eduardo Giorgetti Y Su Mundo: La Aparente Paradoja De Un Millonario Genio Empresarial Y Su Noble Humanismo; by Delma S. Arrigoitia; Publisher: Ediciones Puerto; ISBN 978-0-942347-52-4
  271. ^ "Korber House". Prairieschooltraveler.com. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  272. ^ a b "The Virtual Jewish History Tour Puerto Rico". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  273. ^ Dennis Wasko (11 July 2011). "The Jewish Palate: The Jews of Puerto Rico". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
  274. ^ "Luxner News". Luxner.com. 3 August 2004. Archived from the original on 7 November 2005. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  275. ^ "Number of Muslims and Percentage in Puero Rico". Institute of Islamic Information and Education. 8 February 2006. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  276. ^ "Percent Puerto Rican population that are Muslims". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 14 February 2015. Retrieved 8 June, 2009.
  277. ^ "Muslim mosques in Pto. Rico". Pupr.edu. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  278. ^ "Muslims concentrated in Rio Piedras". Saudiaramcoworld.com. Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  279. ^ "Home". Bahá'ís of Puerto Rico. Archived from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  280. ^ "San Juan Puerto Rico Temple | ChurchofJesusChristTemples.org". Temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Archived from the original on 3 April 2023. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  281. ^ "Statistics and Church Facts | Total Church Membership". newsroom.churchofjesuschrist.org. Archived from the original on 17 May 2023. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
  282. ^ 2016 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, pp. 184–85
  283. ^ "BuddhaNet". Buddhanet.net. Archived from the original on 12 March 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  284. ^ "Iglesia Pastafariana de Puerto Rico". Facebook. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  285. ^ Nicolas Kanellos, "Hispanic Firsts", Visible Ink Press (ISBN 0-7876-0519-0), p. 40.
  286. ^ "CIA FactBook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  287. ^ "Perfil del Sistema Educativo – Año Escolar 2010–2011". estadisticas.gobierno.pr. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  288. ^ Dorell, Oren (5 October 2017). "Puerto Rico's health system 'on life support' after blow". USA Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 1B, 2B. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  289. ^ Triple-S Management Corporation Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the fiscal year ended on 31 December 2005, pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, accessed on 4 November 2006.
  290. ^ Giovannetti, Jorge L. "Popular Music and Culture in Puerto Rico: Jamaican and Rap Music as Cross-Cultural Symbols", in Musical Migrations: Transnationalism and Cultural Hybridity in the Americas, ed. Frances R. Aparicio and Cándida F. Jáquez, 81–98.
  291. ^ "Puerto Rican Music TV". Puerto Rican Music TV. Archived from the original on 22 July 2010. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  292. ^ López Maldonado, Cesiach (21 August 2019). "Entre leyes y múltiples indultos" [Between laws and multiple pardons] (in Spanish). Primera Hora. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  293. ^ Pérez Rivera, Raúl (2 December 2015). "Debate por el Ave Nacional (primera parte)" [Debate for the National Bird (first part)] (in Spanish). CienciaPR. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  294. ^ Sánchez Martínez, Héctor (20 January 2017). "¿Tenemos o no un ave nacional?" [Do we or do we not have a national bird?] (in Spanish). La Perla del Sur. Archived from the original on 5 May 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  295. ^ Randall Peffer (2002). Puerto Rico, a Travel Guide. Lonely Planet. p. 225. ISBN 978-1-74059-274-1.
  296. ^ "National Geographic Traveler Article: Puerto Rico". www.nationalgeographic.com. Archived from the original on 2 March 2010.
  297. ^ José Campeche (1796). "Doña María de los Dolores Gutiérrez del Mazo y Pérez". Brooklyn Museum website. New York.
  298. ^ a b "Puerto Rico in the Great Depression". Newdeal.feri.org. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  299. ^ Acosta Cruz, María (2014). Dream Nation: Puerto Rican Culture and the Fictions of Independence. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-1-4619-5820-8. OCLC 871424250.
  300. ^ Zimmerman, Marc (2020). Defending Their Own in the Cold: The Cultural Turns of U.S. Puerto Ricans. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-08558-1. OCLC 1142708953.
  301. ^ 3-cent Puerto Rico Issue Archived 17 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine Arago: people, postage & the post. Viewed 4 March 2014.
  302. ^ a b Rod, Steven J. Puerto Rico Election Issue Archived 28 July 2020 at the Wayback Machine Arago: people, postage & the post. Viewed 4 March 2014.
  303. ^ San Juan Issue Archived 17 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine Arago: people, postage & the post. Viewed 17 March 2014.
  304. ^ "Flags of our nation series 2008–2012, Arago: people, postage & the post", National Postal Museum. Viewed 7 March 2014.
  305. ^ "Roberto Clemente (1934–1972)" p. 178, "Legends of Baseball" p. 254, Scott's Specialized Catalogue, 2013, ISBN 0-89487-475-6
  306. ^ "Great Americans Issue" Scott's Specialized Catalogue, 2013, ISBN 0-89487-475-6, p. 183
  307. ^ "Literary Arts" Scott's Specialized Catalogue, 2013, ISBN 0-89487-475-6, p. 308
  308. ^ "Distinguished Americans" Scott's Specialized Catalogue, 2013, ISBN 0-89487-475-6, p. 317
  309. ^ Reporter's Notebook. York Daily Record (York, Pennsylvania). 15 December 2003. Page 35. Accessed 24 January 2021.
  310. ^ El Gusto Boricua en el Sur de la Florida. Yined Ramírez-Hendrix. El Nuevo Herald (Miami, Florida). 27 July 2011. Page D12. Accessed 24 January 2021.
  311. ^ Sofrito, imprescindible para latinos. Viviana Caraballo. El Nuevo Herald (Miami, Florida). 6 January 1999. p. 19. Accessed 24 January 2021.
  312. ^ "Baseball Hall of Fame entry for Roberto Clemente". Baseballhall.org. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  313. ^ "Baseball Hall of Fame entry for Orlando Cepeda". Baseballhall.org. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  314. ^ "Baseball Hall of Fame entry for Roberto Alomar". Baseball Hall of Fame. Baseballhall.org. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  315. ^ "Olympics 2004 – Basketball – Shock defeat for USA". BBC News. 15 August 2004. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  316. ^ Jesús Omar Rivera (29 October 2008). "Boricuas lucíos en una rueda". Primera Hora (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
  317. ^ Raul Sosa (27 July 2012). "AND1 & PR Streetball Put on a Show!". BoricuaBallers.com. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  318. ^ Joshua Hammann (14 October 2008). "Melendez adds a new country to Globetrotters' resume". ESPN. Retrieved 7 November 2008.
  319. ^ "A Non-Black Player Joins Globetrotters". The New York Times. Antigua & Barbuda. 28 December 1995. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  320. ^ "Who is Mónica Puig the Puerto Rico player who won the gold medal in the Rio 2016 Olympic Games women's tennis final?". Rio2016.com. Rio 2016 Organising Committee for the Olympic and Paralympic Games. 14 August 2016. Archived from the original on 26 August 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
  321. ^ Waldstein, David (25 August 2016). "Monica Puig, Puerto Rico's Favorite Daughter (and Only Gold Medalist)". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 August 2016.


United States government

United Nations Declaration on Puerto Rico

18°12′N 66°30′W / 18.2°N 66.5°W / 18.2; -66.5 (Commonwealth of Puerto Rico)