Inclusion (mineral)

In today's world, Inclusion (mineral) plays a vital role in various areas of life. Its importance is reflected in society, the economy, politics, culture and people's daily lives. Inclusion (mineral) has been the object of study and interest in different times and contexts, which demonstrates its relevance over time. In this article, we will explore the impact and influence of Inclusion (mineral) on different aspects of society, as well as its evolution throughout history. Additionally, we will analyze how Inclusion (mineral) continues to be a topic of debate and reflection today, and how its meaning has changed over time.

Dark inclusions of aegerine in light-green apatite
Sketch showing different shapes of inclusions

In mineralogy, an inclusion is any material trapped inside a mineral during its formation. In gemology, it is an object enclosed within a gemstone or reaching its surface from the interior. According to James Hutton's law of inclusions, fragments included in a host rock are older than the host rock itself.


Inclusions are usually rocks or other minerals, less often water, gas or petroleum. Liquid and vapor create fluid inclusions. In amber, insects and plants are common inclusions.

The analysis of atmospheric gas bubbles as inclusions in ice cores is an important tool in the study of climate change.

A xenolith is a preexisting rock which has been picked up by a lava flow. Melt inclusions form when bits of melt become trapped inside crystals as they form in the melt.


An insect encased in amber, has gas bubbles protruding from its thorax and head.
The term three phase relates to the three phases of matter, solid, liquid, and gas. This is a three phase inclusion in rock crystal quartz. The solid is a black material that is of bituminous origin. The liquid encased is petroleum, and the gas bubble is methane.

Inclusions are one of the most important factors when it comes to gem valuation. They diminish the clarity and value of many gemstones, such as diamonds, and increase the value of others, such as star sapphires.

Many colored gemstones are expected to have inclusions which do not greatly affect their values. They are categorized into three types:


The term "inclusion" is also used in the context of metallurgy and metals processing. During the melt stage of processing particles such as oxides can enter or form in the liquid metal which are subsequently trapped when the melt solidifies. The term is usually used negatively such as when the particle could act as a fatigue crack nucleator or as an area of high stress intensity.

See also


  1. ^ "Types of Mineral Inclusions". Geology Page. 2017-06-03. Retrieved 2020-08-08.
  2. ^ a b "What Are Inclusions?". Retrieved 2020-08-08.
  3. ^ "Geologic Principles". Archived from the original on 2021-10-17. Retrieved 2020-08-08.
  4. ^ Barnola, J.-M; Raynaud, D.; Lorius, C.; Barkov, N.I. (2003). "Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Vostok Ice Core". Retrieved 2020-08-08.
  5. ^ "Types of Mineral Inclusions with Photos". 2017-01-20. Retrieved 2020-08-08.
  6. ^ Petersen, Christian (August 2, 2020). "What Are Inclusions in Steel?". wiseGEEK. Retrieved 2020-08-08.
  7. ^ "The Origins of Oxide Inclusions :: Total Materia Article". Retrieved 2020-08-08.
  8. ^ Ashby, M. F. (2019). Materials: engineering, science, processing and design. Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, UK. Hugh Shercliff, David Cebon (4th ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-102376-1. OCLC 852806045.
  9. ^ "Inclusion Metallurgy". Department Metallurgy - Metallurgie Department. Retrieved 2020-08-08.